Abstract: The present study investigated the anxiolytic, antidepressant and antistress actions of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum tamala (CT) leaves in rats. CT (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was administered orally once daily for 7 days and the results were compared by those elicited by lorazepam (1 mg/kg, p.o), imipramine (10 mg/kg, p.o),W.sominfera (100 mg/kg, p.o) for anxiolytic, antidepressant and antistress studies respectively. All these standard drugs were administered once, 30 min prior to the tests. Results were analyzed by One-way ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison Test. P<0.05 were considered significant as compared to control.
In order to accurately determine the amount of dosage to be administered to each animal, the rats were all weighed one hour prior to the experiment. I ran a total of twelve groups in the Open Field Apparatus with each group running two rats each . The experimental rats were administered an IP injection using a 2% dosage of LiCl solution at 85 mgs/kg. Control groups were given a baseline injection of NaCl. The Open Field Apparatus was placed over 48 12x12 tiles in a dimly lit room .
The animals were fasted for 24 h before the experiment with free access to water and were treated orally with two equal doses of either indomethacin (10 mg Kg-1 b.w.) or the test compounds (50 mg Kg-1 b.w.) at 0 and 12 h intervals, except the control group, which received 0.5% w/v CMC. After the drug treatment, the rats were fed a normal diet for 17 h and then sacrificed. The stomach was removed and opened along the greater curvature, washed with distilled water and cleaned gently by dipping in normal saline.
HGH-X2 (Somatropine): 2 capsules per day, 20 minutes before your breakfast Gunner: 3 capsules daily, 45 minutes prior to your workout 5. Anadrole (Anadrol): 2 capsules per day, 20 minutes before your breakfast Alpha: 3 capsules daily, 15-20 minutes after your workout 6. Gynectrol : 2 capsules per day, 20 minutes before your breakfast Winger: 3 capsules daily With main meal of the day 7. Winsol (winstrol): 3 capsules with main meal of the day Sergeant: 2 capsules daily, 20 minutes prior to breakfast 8. Testo-Max (Sustanon): 3 capsules per day, 20 minutes before your breakfast Colonel: 3 capsules daily, 45 minutes prior to your workout 9.
But too much of Percocet dependency leads to addiction of it. Percocet, like every other opiate pain medicines, is highly addictive. This is one of the reason why this drug is widely abused. Percocet is commonly prescribed to help cancer patients. This drug is manufactured such that oxycodone is released slowly into the system.
(Mayo Clinic Staff) 3 Phases of Chickenpox There are three phases of chickenpox. The first phase is when you get pink or red bumps all over your body. Most of the time the bump starts at the abdomen, back, or face and then spreads. This phase usually takes 1 or 2 days for the bumps to go through their stage. New red spots appear every 5 to 7 days.
Traditionally, barbiturates were used in the treatment of anxiety, epilepsy, anesthetics, and to induce sleep. However, they have a tendency to cause psychological and physical dependence and there is a fine line between a normal dose and a toxic dose. Nowadays, barbiturates have been largely replaced by safer drugs, although some are still used during surgery or to control seizures. Examples of barbiturates include pentobarbital, phenobarbital, butabarbital, and mephobarbital or Nembutal, luminal, butisol sodium, and mebaral as brand names. Benzodiazepines are a class of agents that work on the central nervous system, acting selectively on gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA-A) receptors in the brain.
This is because drug interactions are possible with tramadol including reduced effects by Carbamazepine, increased concentration of 50-60% by Quinidine, and seizures or other serious side effects due to MAO or SSRI inhibitors. Your central nervous system and respiratory depression may be increased when tramadol is combined with certain substances such as narcotic drugs, alcohol, sedatives, anesthetics and
(1962). Hypophysectomized immature female rats,80-100 gm weight were used in this study. 20µ of purified ACTH (Porcine-ACTH, Sigma Chemical Co., USA) dissolved in 0.5ml of physiological saline was administered to rats in a single dose by sub-cutaneous injection. The control group received physiological saline (0.9%) only which was administered to rats in a single dose by sub-cutaneous injection. Rats were sacrificed at different periods by cervical dislocation, dissected and the adrenals free of adhering fat were used for analysis.
Antidepressants used for BMS treatment are broadly classified into tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline, imipramine, desimipramine, clomipramine, doxepin) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline) and atypical antidepressants (trazodone). Amitriptyline exerts its antidepressant action by blocking the neuronal reuptake of noradrenaline and serotonin. But due to its anticholinergic it may cause delirium in elderly patients. Desipramine and nortriptyline, which have least anticholinergic activity, are equally efficacious substitutes. Dosage for adults is initially 25mg thrice daily which can be increased upto 150mg daily in divided doses.
Temporal lobe epilepsy is known to being resistant to medication, which is why current research is investigating how G- proteins can become activated by the mu opioid receptor selective peptide (DAMGO) and nociception (Temp Lobe G). Another aspect examined is the binding to mu and nociception (NOP) receptors and adenylyl cyclase (AC) in the neocortex, which is the region of the brain associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (Temp). By comparing the levels of [3H]DAMGO binding and stimulation, it was concluded that epileptics with temporal lobe seizure were found to have changes in the mu opioid and NOP receptor binding and, also, the downstream receptors were found to have alterations in their signal transduction mechanisms
Other pharmacologic treatments include meloxicam, ibuprofen, oxaprozin and sulindac. In addition, “cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, such as celecoxib (Celebrex), have an improved safety profile for gastrointestinal adverse effects, but are costly and confer an increased cardiovascular risk” (Sinuasas, 2012, p.
In 2005, researchers at the Ramazzini Foundation in Bologna, Italy conducted such a study. The study found that rats exposed to aspartame starting at 8 weeks of age, and continuing throughout their lives, developed leukemias, lymphomas, and kidney tumors. In 2007, the same researchers published a follow-up study that exposed rats to aspartame beginning in the womb and continuing throughout their lives. It found that aspartame caused lymphomas, in addition to mammary (breast) cancers. In 2010, the group exposed test mice to aspartame while they were still in the womb again, and made the startling discovery that the mice developed liver cancers and lung cancers
Currently there are three medications, Teriflunomide, Fingolimod and Dimethyl Fumarate. While these medications offer the convenience of a pill they have considerable and potentially dangerous side effects. Teriflunomide (Aubagio) works by blocking the enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, which inhibit rapidly dividing cells like those of the immune system. Serious side effects include inability to fight infection, breathing problems and high blood pressure. Other side effects include: headache; diarrhea; nausea; hair thinning or loss; and abnormal liver test results.
The four types of antidepressant medications that are the most common. These medications are Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), as Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs), Atypical Antidepressants, and Tricyclic Antidepressants. Each has similar side effects, while others have different effects on the human body. The first main type of antidepressant is Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) which job is to ease depression by affecting the chemical messengers, which are used to interconnect between all the brain cells. SSRIs block the reabsorption of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain.