Construction projects always are subjected to changes due to any factors in terms of scope of work, material quantities, design errors and unit rate changes. The changes on the construction project seem like an evil that makes the work delays, time overrun and also cost overrun. However, variation order does not really an evil but it is some necessary which is needed in construction projects. This report covers the introduction to the variation order in basic knowledge, causes and impacts of variation order towards construction projects. Besides that, the necessary of the variation orders in construction projects will also be discussed to understand the needs of variation orders.
Lack of effective communication in and lack of support from the management to the workers is also a main reason that contributes to lack of quality in the construction projects. Similarly in the construction projects, cost is not monitored at every phase of the construction process, therefore, often the original expenses of the project exceeds the estimated expenses. Also the cost control methods are not effective and the budget is often prepared by not considering all the elements of the project which does not provide good source for assessing and evaluating the actual performance of project (Becker, et al., 2013). 2.6 Conclusion In these chapter previous researches relating to cost, quality and waste management practices is analysed and elaborated. Cost and waste management is amongst the most debatable issue that concerns the architectural construction industry.
Preplanning process in a project is starts before commencement of the project. In the preplanning stage project manager and all responsible persons of applicable project have to identify what are the risks can occur in different stages within the project. The risk identification is normally starts the project before initiated but risks can increase when the project is running and matures with time period. Risk can define as an incident that has a how much probability of occurring, and how much the impact whether it is negative or positive for the project. A one risk can make a one or more impact to the project and risk managing has to do when project is ongoing.
The advantage of construction management are that the builder must be paid for his participation in design. The conventional contract: Is one in which the employs consultants to design the work and to supervise a contractor in the application of plan and design of the work. The contractor is selected on the basis of his suitability QUESTION #4 Now a days there is vast range of software which could help a construction engineer in his or her work. If being basic in personal computers we all have basic programs like Microsoft office. A constructional engineer can very efficiently use it and collect data and perform some basic methods related to his or her field.
Instead qualitative methods, like brainstorming, check listing and interviewing are more utilized due to its simplicity and efficiency. • Risk transfer, risk reduction, risk retention and risk avoidance; these are some of the effectiveness of risk responses in descending order. • Precautionary activities are utilized to prevent and curtail risks at the early phase of project construction. Produce an appropriate calendar by getting up to date project data and produce a useful system utilizing personal understanding are the two best risk deterrent activities. • Healthful activities are corrective steps proposed at minimizing the impacts of risks.
Variation can cause conflict and disapproval among the parties involved in construction projects (Aftab, Ismail and Mohamad Faris, 2014). In addition, it is very necessary to control variation in construction project. A clause is provided in the most standard forms of a contract which the client or his representative
There has some laws about preservation of local environment and any historical building surrounds depending on the project. Next, contractor is a person who employs directly employs or under a company that they need to perform their work on contract basis or manages construction work. The contractor can be divided into main contractor and sub-contractor. One of the role of contractor is making clients aware of their duties. Contractor must make sure the satisfaction of clients before carrying out any construction work.
Maintenance problem should be considered early in the design stage of construction project. Sivanathan et al. (2012) identified that the design phase activities involve the architectural and engineering design of the entire project. These decisions will influence all decisions made in subsequent stage and vice versa. Therefore, the design phase was a major source of problems for the subsequent phase if not well manages to specify at the outset of the project.
It will show the best ways of planning and managing the site. It will enable to the contractors the ways of maximizing the resource efficiency through procurement of labor, material and equipment. It will help the contractors to implement various operation s through proper coordination and control of planning, design, contracting and construction in the entire process. 7. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 7.1.