Cultural Values: A Literature Review

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Culture, is a mentality influenced by the behaviours of a society. Ones culture profile consists of norms and valued of the particular culture. Definitions require a breakdown of the variables that make up culture. A persons perception will determine which variables are the most important when defining culture. For example, a person from India will typically have a different opinion on what culture is in comparison to someone from the west. Therefore, as a result, different theories have been published in attempt to explain culture and the differences between them. This literature review will critically evaluate relevant theory related to explaining the differences in cultural values. A well credited definition is presented by Huczinsky &…show more content…
[4] According to Schein, there are three levels of organisational culture. Firstly, there are observable artefacts such as the physical surroundings or mission statements. Secondly, Schien stresses that culture is found in values and beliefs; this essentially is the motive behind our behaviours. The third level of culture is fundamental assumptions (often unconscious); these are underlying and grow out of values. In terms of organisational culture, the second layer of this model best explains differences in cultural values. For example, in china the employee does is not fully committed to the organization as personal relationships are a priority which is identified in Hofstede’s individualism index. The values and beliefs of a society is important as it influences an organization. The mindset of the individuals within an organization essentially influence the culture of the work…show more content…
They believed common problems in a society and its corresponding solutions could be explained by categorising into value orientations. These categories enable one to identify differences between societies. ‘The relationship with time’ is one of the value orientations that focus on individuals and the groups mentality as to how they allow the past, present and future to influence their actions and decisions. Americas belief their future is controlled therefore “Future planning is mandatory in America.” [7] This further supports kluckholn and strodtbecks theory as America is categorised under future orientated due to the fact it’s influenced by future prospects. According to this value orientation India falls under the category of a past oriented society as its concerns are with traditional values and way of managing. “there’s growing realisation Indian socio-cultural values are not dysfunctional to the functioning of organisations, provided that a level of fit can be obtained between individual values and organizational values” [8] therefore kluckholn and strodtbecks theory does not undermine or give preference to a particular cultures values, the theory merely allows one to draw distinctions between different cultures

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