Value Theory Definition Goals

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Values are basic orientations that guide our actions and behavior (Bardi & Schwartz, 2003). They serve as motivational goals that determine what we care about most in life (Schwartz, 2010). In this paper to conceptualize and measure values Schwartz’s theory (1992, 2012) is used. He distinguishes ten basic universal values in terms of goals they express. All the values and their central goals are listed in Table 1. Table 1. Value types and defining goals in Schwartz’s value theory Value type Defining goal Self-Direction independent thought and action--choosing, creating, exploring. Stimulation excitement, novelty, and challenge in life Hedonism pleasure or sensuous gratification for oneself. Achievement personal success through demonstrating…show more content…
Adjacent values are the most compatible and opposite values are in conflict. For example, universalism and benevolence share some similar motivational goals, which are in conflict with power. The concern about others’ welfare obstructs self-centered actions designed to dominate other people, gain prestige and status. In contrast pursuing both universalism and benevolence is compatible. Seeking harmony with nature and society also tends to promote supportive relationship within the family and close social groups. Hence, people for whom benevolence is important also prioritize higher universalism, while giving lower priority to…show more content…
H3b: In the context of poverty such values as universalism, power, and security, conformity traditions have a negative effect on SWB 2.4.3 Mediation role of values Based on the above-mentioned discussion the direction of mediation can be predicted. The poverty is negatively associated with such values as self-direction, stimulation, hedonism, achievement, and benevolence, which in turn has a positive effect on SWB. In this case, impoverished consumers are less likely to experience higher SWB, because they are less likely to adhere to values that lead to higher SWB. In contrast, disadvantaged people tend to pursue values that have a negative impact on SWB, such as security, traditions, and conformity. Therefore, it is predicted that these values also have a negative mediation effect. Power and universalism have a negative impact on SWB, at the same time they are lee likely to be adopted by the poor. As a result, power and universalism are predicted to have a positive indirect effect on
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