Vampire Bat Research Paper

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Draculin is an enzyme called desmoteplase (known as DSPA) found in the saliva of the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Vampire bats are found throughout the Central and South America, ranging from Mexico to the tip of Argentina. At night, these bats emerge from their roosts in hollow trees or caves, using echolocation for orientation, they detect the presence of prey with heat sensors located in the face. Vampire bats will usually land near their resting prey and then hop or crawl toward it. Once they have reached their prey, which can include humans and animals, they make a tiny incision in the skin with their razor-sharp incisor teeth. Although the wounds themselves are usually not serious, infection may result. Vampire bats are considered pests in much of their range, since they frequently transmit rabies to livestock. Humans can also be infected.
When the vampire bats subsequently lick the blood flowing from the tiny wound, a very strong anticoagulant in their saliva keeps the blood from clotting. The saliva of the bat contains anticoagulant and fibrinolytic proteins, which are inhibitors of coagulation, plasminogen activators, and inhibitors of platelet
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“First, the feeding behavior of vampire bats is similar to that of parasites because the prey is not killed. Repeated feeding on the same animal therefore may occur, either by the same bat on successive nights or by other bats. Second, the abundant secretion of saliva and the persistent licking of the wound for about 30 min during each bat feeding facilitates a lingering contact between the bat saliva and the subcutaneous or muscular tissues, or both, of the prey. Third, anticoagulants are large molecules (such as proteins) that can behave as antigens. Acquired immunity against saliva, tissues, and organs of multicellular parasites has been reported in mammals, a response that facilitates damaging and killing ticks and other parasites (Greenhall

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