The extra stretch in the bonds allows the bonds between molecules to relax and shrink a little, giving up their energy. This is equal to cooling.” What this explanation basically means is that superheating the water is equivalent to cooling it. So, when room temperature water is frozen and compared to boiling water freezing, the boiling water has an unfair advantage because it is already more cooled than the room temperature water without being colder, which is even cooler than the phenomenon
The three things that can cause the enzyme to denature is a large change in pH level, High Temperature, and substrate concentration. According to our knowledge, we know that a large change in pH will cause instability in the protein structure thus resulting in denaturation of the enzyme. From the data, we can see that pH 3 (total:6.3) and 10 (total:6.2) were the slowest because pH 3 is probably the highest acid and pH 10 is the highest base. The highest acid or base pH represents a large change which would cause the enzyme to denature. The fastest pH was 6 (total:34.5), and it seems that there wasn’t a large change which resulted in a stable structure.
Meaning that the more acidic to stable of the Hydrogen Ion concentration is the more soluble the bath bomb becomes. This data does not support the original hypothesis of “If bath bombs are designed with different concentrations, then the Sodium Bicarbonate bath bomb design will be the most soluble because Sodium Bicarbonate is a salt and has a high solubility in water.” The data showed that the citric acid and sodium carbonate mixture with an average pH of 6.4 disintegrated in 9 minutes and 19.44 seconds while the sodium carbonate took the longest time to disintegrate at 25 minutes and 27.69 seconds. So clearly the as stability of the Hydrogen Ion Concentration from an acidic solution, the less time the salt mixture takes to disintegrate but when the solution becomes basic the more time the salt mixture takes to
Hence, Beaker 1 also cooled slower than Beaker 2. Comparing results from Part I and Part II demonstrates how Beaker 1 cooled faster in Part II when it contained GHG than in Part I. Additional outlier which could be related to the results is wobble of the beakers which occurred at some point while Part II was in realization. This outlier may had an impact in a way that it caused the temperature to drop. Outlier has a negative effect on the data and it generates fall out of the general
However, the almost linear promoting effects of DME addition were found in propane and n-butane ignition delays [23, 25]. This is mainly due to that the reactivity of methane is much lower relative to that of DME. Therefore, even with a small amount of DME addition, the ignition was strongly promoted by the decomposition of DME accompanied by the rapid build-up of free radicals, thus lead to the nonlinear promoting effect on methane ignition [21, 22]. However, for the higher order alkanes such as propane and butane, the reactivity of which are higher and the ignition delay times are much shorter relative to methane. Moreover, in the high temperature oxidation of methane, the rate of the governing reaction CH4 + O2 CH3 + HO2 is much slower than of the similar reactions of the higher order alkanes .
When pH is high which means more OH⁻, then aluminum ions will react with hydroxide ions to form aluminum hydroxide. Phosphate ions are acting as a natural buffer. If the equipment is not washed with acid, it would cause an error. This is because the phosphorus analyzing is dealing with low concentration of phosphorus and it is easily contaminated by detergent and other chemicals and it has to be washed by using an acid and also it has to be rinsed with distilled water once it is rinsed with acid. Also refer to section 4 (discussion).
The melting points for the acidic and neutral compounds were hence too low, and the melting point for the basic compound was too high. The errors in the acidic and neutral compounds can be explained by impurities in the crude product, along with the presence of the solvents, ethyl acetate and water, which disturbed the stability of the compounds, and led to lower melting points over a larger range. The abnormally high melting point of the base may have been observed due to improper separation of the acid and base solutions in the separation funnel. Some of the acidic compound may have entered the basic solution and reacted with the base to form a high melting point salt, making the melting point of the base appear abnormally high. The Mel-Temp was also turned on a high setting accidentally, so it is possible that the temperature rose too quickly to get a good reading of the melting
Research Question: How does the concentration of the nitric acid affect the the time for the magnesium to dissolve or react. Hypothesis: If the concentration of the nitric acid is lower, the magnesium strips will dissolve slower and each time the concentration acid is higher the magnesium strip will dissolve faster. The reason for magnesium strips to dissolve faster when the concentration of the nitric acid is higher is because the reaction of this experiment is exothermic and when more energy is given out the faster the magnesium strips will dissolve. Collision theory is when different reactions collide at different rates, a slow reaction have a low rate of reaction and a fast reaction have a high rate of reaction. The reason for magnesium to dissolve slower with lower Nitric acid Mols is that lower Mols of a nitric acid contains lower energy and when the magnesium collide with a nitric acid that contains a low level of energy, it does not create a reaction.
The extended model of Traüble –Haines-Liebowitz. Cholesterol inhibits the water permeability of phospholipid membranes reducing it in nearly one order of magnitude at 1:4 cholesterol:phospholipid ratio. This is concomitant with a reduction in the lateral mobility of the lipids. According to the Haines-Liebowitz-Traüble model, permeability is connected to lateral diffusion . In FTIR spectroscopy, there is a reduction of the value indicating that the connected populations of CH2 increases with the cholesterol ratio, which is totally compatible with the water permeability decrease via the reduction of kinks .
Vitamin C is sensitive to temperature (presence of heat), exposure to light and exposure to air (oxygen). It is considered ‘the most easily destroyed vitamin’.  Hypothesis: If the Vitamin C is to be frozen and thawed then the molecules will be destroyed, thus decreasing the concentration of the substance. According to the experiment, the main factor that will have to be taken into account of when freezing, will be the blanching process. This process destroys about 25% of the Vitamin C prior to the substance becoming frozen.
Fortunately, a thin film of water can generally be found on top of ice and snow. As the top layer of water tries to freeze the salt gets in the way. The total number of water molecules captured by the ice per second goes down, therefore the rate of freezing goes down. The melting occurs faster than the freezing because it is not affected by the salt. Other foreign materials can also melt ice.
After seeing this data the two most effective look chemical at resisting energy was CaCl2 and LiCl. So we looked at the price of both of this chemical CaCl2 cost 6.55$ per 500g and LiCl cost 32.75$ per 500g because CaCl2 was substantially cheaper we decide to chose it to use in own hand warmer. We calculated that it would take 22g of CaCl2 to create a 20oC increase in temperature of 100ml of water. Some sources of error in this lab, would be heat escape from not be able to replace the lid of the calorement went adding chemical into it, inaccuracies in the balance, and not waiting of the proper time to recode the
We found a little number of Phosphates and Nitrates in the water. That is healthy because these two chemicals are in fertilizers and detergents, they can harm the creek and all the creatures living in the creek. They get into the water through the eutrophication process. Bacteria eat phosphates and nitrates so that means there is a little number of bacteria in this creek. The dissolved oxygen level of the creek is high which is healthy.