Variation Theory Literature Review

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The literature reviews in this section will present a description on Variation Theory and Learning Study, and the degree to which the approach are being used in education context. This section will also review literatures that are related to tone value drawing, student learning and teacher development.
Variation Theory as a Theoretical Framework
The development of variation theory derives from the field of phenomenography in which was out of the interest of the different ways people experience a phenomenon (Marton & Booth, 1997). According to Miller (1956), there is a threshold to our capacity to focus. The numbers of aspects on an object or a phenomenon in our focal awareness are limited. This result in some
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The difference between the critical feature and critical aspects is that the former refers to a dimension on variation, while the latter is a value of that dimension of variation. For example, when describing a dog as a big, brown Alsatian, the critical features are: big, brown and Alsatian while the critical aspects are size, colour and pedigree. In regards to learning, students cannot discern an object of learning without experiencing the difference of the dimension that relate to the value of the critical features simultaneously (Marton,…show more content…
Lessons are designed according to students learning difficulties. Students’ prior knowledge is assessed through the pre-tests and interviews as assessment tools to inform the content of the lessons. According to Hodge (2010), the key component of an effective lesson is when the teacher understands and knows about the topic. As Variation Theory using learning study is collaborative in its nature, teachers gain more knowledge on the topic as they discuss and meet to share their past experiences about teaching the topic before proceeding to the
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