Variation Theory In Literature

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The literature reviews in this section will present a description on Variation Theory and Learning Study, and the degree to which the approach are being used in education context. This section will also review literatures that are related to tone value drawing, student learning and teacher development.
Variation Theory as a Theoretical Framework
The development of variation theory derives from the field of phenomenography in which was out of the interest of the different ways people experience a phenomenon (Marton & Booth, 1997). According to Miller (1956), there is a threshold to our capacity to focus. The numbers of aspects on an object or a phenomenon in our focal awareness are limited. This result in some
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The object of learning refers to what the students need to learn to achieve the desired learning objectives. There are two aspects of object of learning pointed out by Lo (2012): the specific aspect (refers to the subject matter, knowledge or skill that we wish students to learn) and the general (the capabilities that can be developed through the learning of the specific aspect).
The object of learning is dynamic, even though teachers will have an intended object of learning, teachers need to adjust according to students’ responses during the course of teaching (Lo, 2012). There are three differentiation of object of: the intended, the enacted and the lived object of learning (Marton, Runesson & Tsui, 2004). The intended object of learning refers to the intended learning outcome of the lesson. The enacted object of learning is the outcome of the executed lesson which is established by the teacher and learner. The lived object of learning is what the students actually learn. This depends on the student’s experience of the dimension of variation that relate to critical aspects of the object of
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Lessons are designed according to students learning difficulties. Students’ prior knowledge is assessed through the pre-tests and interviews as assessment tools to inform the content of the lessons. According to Hodge (2010), the key component of an effective lesson is when the teacher understands and knows about the topic. As Variation Theory using learning study is collaborative in its nature, teachers gain more knowledge on the topic as they discuss and meet to share their past experiences about teaching the topic before proceeding to the lesson.
Professional Development: Teacher Collaboration
Teacher collaboration in art as a professional development was stated by Vicky Lind (2007) in her study as follows:
There was a transformation in the beliefs and behaviours of these teachers as they worked collaboratively to positively impact arts education. The teachers reported a better understanding of their discipline, the content standards, student learning, and planning. While their teaching continued to be fairly directed, there was a change in how they planned and how they sequenced instruction (p.

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