Rubrics are evaluation guides that provide feedback on several different learning objectives, recognizing where a student falls into the spectrum of proficiency for each objective. Teachers should model the use of rubrics early in the class and explain to the students the importance of the holistic grading. When the students get used to the concept, they can use the rubrics to evaluate their own progress. Through the use of rubrics the teacher can receive information that reveals gaps between students’ perceived performance and actual performance (Alpert,
Likewise, this theory often described in a school education field. Richardson V (1997) mentioned that the classroom from this theory should be taught as follows. The teacher must pursuit asking students questions continually to encourage their intellectual curiosity along with a curriculum which is based on big concepts rather than specific knowledge. Also, the interactive learning should help the student to build their own knowledge that the assessment should be included this
This defines the roles of the teacher and the learners in the learning process which states that the learners will be the focus of the teaching-learning process. The teacher’s role is to facilitate learning by utilizing the interests and unique abilities of learners to reach a goal. On the other hand, the learners’ role is an active participant rather than a passive one. This means that the learner will be involved in tasks that will help him reach the goal of learning. In this study, the instruction followed the criterial tasks of the K-12 Curriculum.
In this stage, the teacher analyses the data collected from the situational pilot test. After analyzing the result and developing the test, it is suggested that the developed test is piloted again to another group of learners so that the test will have a good quality in terms of validity, reliability, practicality, and authenticity. New trends in pragmatic competence
Learning materials is a learning resource that is used in the learning process. According to Ibrahim (2003, p. 3), learning materials needed by the teacher to manage the learning process includes syllabus, lesson plan, students sheet activity, evaluation instrument or test, instructional media, and students ' book. Learning materials developed in this research include the lesson plan, students sheet activity, test, and instructional media. Lesson plans The Lesson plan is learning activities plan for one or more meetings. The Lesson plan was developed based on the syllabus to guide the students ' learning activities to achieve basic competency.
Performance Assessment Performance assessment is a method of teaching and learning that involves both process and product. It is not just a testing strategy. In performance assessments, students are involved in the process of constructing various types of product. Instead of measuring how much they know, performance assessment measures what students can do with what they know. Performance assessment tasks are based on what is most essential in the curriculum and what is interesting to a student.
They defined formative assessment as a concept that teachers use information from activities to determine the next steps in learning and teaching. In their viewpoints, the information from a formative assessment actually is used to adjust instruction ‘to meet students’ needs”. In other words, these adjustments were not only to be made in the instruction but they needed to work. Likewise, Brown (2004) also stated this point in his definition. He defines formative assessment as “evaluating students in the process of ‘forming’ their competencies and skills with the goal of helping them to continue that growth process”, (p
The evaluation was divided into two broad categories Scholastic that looked at the areas which were subject specific and Co-Scholastic that included activities that were co-curricular like life skills, attitudes and values. The Scholastic evaluations was divided into Summative assessment to help analyse how much the students have learned after teaching through various medium like multiple choice questions, long and short answers , match the following , fill in the blanks and understanding diagrams in science . and Formative assessment to evaluate the students everyday learning situations during teaching to help identify gaps to help provide feedback to teachers to take remedial action which was done through various tools like observation, document analysis ,peer reviews ,self-assessment ,tests and the various techniques used were like projects ,assignments , activities , making of posters ,charts ,collages ,group discussions and seminars whereas the life skills looked at enhancing the thinking, social and emotional skills . The summative assessment are to assess skills like teamwork ,leadership skills , memory and understanding along with
In the studies, to elicit teachers’ beliefs and cognition, metaphor analysis was exploited (Tobin, 1990; Thornbury, 1991; Akbari, 2013). Lakoff and Johnson (1980) suggest that using personal metaphors is a way of self-understanding which “is the continual development of new life stories for yourself” (p.233). In teaching contexts, metaphors are considered as a means for teachers to verbalize their profession as a teacher (Pajak, 1986). The investigation of metaphors was also considered as a valuable tool to be used in understanding classroom processes (Marshall, 1990) and in training programs (Thornbury, 1991; Tobin, 1990). Tobin (1990) searched practising and prospective teachers in a project based on a constructivist approach to reveal the change process in conceptualizing teachers’ beliefs and roles through metaphors and the finding were used to implement teacher change.
Syllabus: Syllabus is an opinionative expression on the language learning’s nature; it is a guidance for both the instructor and learner by providing some goals which are to be accomplished. Hutchinson and Waters has defined the syllabus as follows: “A syllabus is depicted as a statement of what is to be taught and learnt. It is the expression of language and linguistic performance.” Due to its traditional interpretation of syllabus it focuses on the outcomes rather than the process. However a syllabus can viewed as “a sum up of the content to which the learner will be exposed”. Syllabus is viewed as an estimation of what is to be learned and it cannot precisely anticipate that what is to be acquired.