Two of the procedures most often performed on a Raynaud’s syndrome patient are chemical injections and nerve surgery. The nerve surgery is called a sympathectomy. During this procedure small incisions will be made on the affected area and a doctor or surgeon will remove the little nerves around the small blood vessels. While this treatment is not always successful, it is used to reduce the frequency and severity of a Raynaud’s attack. The other treatment for Raynaud’s syndrome is a chemical injection.
In heart failure increased flow extremities are warm and red and pulse pressure is normal or elevated. Systolic versus diastolic heart failure. Heart failure can be caused by abnormalities in systolic function leading to a defect in expulsion of blood or a diastolic function abnormality that leads to an abnormal ventricular filling. The most common form is associated with altered systolic inotropismului. Less commonly found is the ability ventricular diastolic failure to accept blood is altered.
This allow desaturated blood to shunt right to left side, causing desaturation in the left side of the heart and in the systemic circulation causing hypoxia and cyanosis. PULMONARY ATRESIA / PULMONARY STENOSIS Pulmonary Stenosis is the narrowing at the entrance to the pulmonary artery causing right ventricular hypertrophy. Pulmonary Atresia is the severe form of pulmonary stenosis. Pathophysiology When Pulmonary Stenosis is present, resistant to blood flow cause right ventricular hypertrophy – right atrial pressure will increase – reopening of the foramen ovale, shunting of unoxygenated blood into the left atrium, systemic circulation. Clinical manifestation: Cyanosis, characteristic murmur , cardiomegaly .
TAVI is an invasive procedure to aortic valve. In this invasive surgery a new valve that is a stainless steel tube with biological materials of cows, is inserted through a balloon catheter to the heart. This procedure can be done with local or general anaesthetic. This new valve insertion can be done with two common ways. Firstly is the transfemoral, which means through the femoral artery or second common way is the transapical way that is through a small cut to the left side to the chest.
Angioplasty starts just like angiogram, and it takes many steps. First, the patient will be injected with local anesthetic where the catheter will be inserted. Then the doctor will make a puncture in the skin using a needle to insert the catheter into the blood vessels under x-ray image control. Angioplasty is usually preformed through the artery in the groin ( upper thigh), but it could be preformed through the arteries in the wrist or the arm. When the catheter reaches the heart, a liquid dye that is visible in x-ray picture is released so that the blocked area could be visualized.
For example, if a patient has a tracheostomy tube inserted assuming that it is to bypass a trachea that is blocking the blood flow. Then it can be considered as temporary, since it will be removed once the patient recovers. It can also be as simple as when a patient is unable to protect their own airway. Generally the patient is able to speak once the opening closes up. There is usually only a small scar left behind when the tube is removed after a temporary tracheotomy has been done.
This procedure may be done in conjunction with neck liposuction. If there is a lot of loose skin, it would have to be removed through both horizontal and vertical skin excisions. This will result in both a transverse scar high on the neck and a scar extending down the middle of the neck toward the Adam’s apple, which can be quite noticeable. For this reason, most surgeons will recommend removing excessive skin through a facelift incision, where the scars will be well hidden. Operations limited to the neck are typically outpatient procedures done with local anesthesia and sedation.
Since calcium salt build-up adds to the acceleration of atherosclerosis, a calcium CT scan is used to see if calcium is present in the blood vessels. One of the most widely used tests for atherosclerosis is a cardiac angiography. This is done by doing a catheterization procedure and utilizing x-rays to look at the blood vessels as a liquid dye is injected into the blood vessels. This can determine where the blockage is and if the treatment should be a CABG surgery or a PCI surgery. The last and most detailed test is the intravascular ultrasonography.
Oxygenated blood that is pumped throughout the body by the arteries which is then supplied to the body tissue as they need to survive. The blood in the arteries are under very high pressure this could potentially damage our tissue therefore the oxygenated blood first travels to the capillaries which are quite small, low-pressured vessels which are then responsible to supply blood to the tissue. The capillaries absorb more carbon dioxide into the blood which is then delivered to the veins which is then supplied back into the heart. Aerobic respiration uses glucose from your bloodstream to produce energy. Energy is generated by aerobic respiration which needs oxygen, so when we breathe your body moves the oxygen through the red
LAVH is similar to the vaginal hysterectomy with the removal of the uterus and cervix except it adds the use of a laparoscope. A laparoscope is a thin, lighted tube used to view the structures of the abdomen and pelvis. There will be several small incisions at about half an inch each through the lower abdomen and below the belly button. Whereas, the LSH is done entirely through small abdominal incisions with the use of laproscopic tools to remove only the uterus. Both LAVH and LSH will have a much quicker recovery time as compared to previous mentioned
Lymphovenous Bypass WHAT IS LYMPHOVENOUS BYPASS? The lymphatic system is not very well known, but it is vital to the operation of the human body. It works alongside the bloodstream absorbing any leaked fluid from the blood vessels, this is known as lymph. Lymph nodes filter the lymph and put it back into the blood, but if these lymph nodes are damaged or removed the result is lymphedema, which is the swelling of a limb creating pain and immobility. Lymphovenous Bypass is a microsurgical procedure that opens pathways for blocked lymphatic vessels in the lymphatic system.
Pseudoaneurysm A pseudoaneurysm happens when an artery is injured and blood leaks out to form a sac-like bulge. The bulge can break open, causing bleeding in the nearby tissues. CAUSES The most common cause of this condition is a procedure such as an angiogram in which a thin tube (catheter) is inserted into an artery. After an angiogram, the insertion site on the artery should close back up all the way. If it does not, blood may leak out of the artery.
- Eat a healthy diet and drink enough fluids to keep skin hydrated. Quit smoking. - Limited mobility is a key factor in causing pressure sores therefore, daily exercise can improve blood flow, build vital muscle tissue, stimulate appetite, and strengthen the body. (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2014, p. 9). The goal is to prevent formation of pressure ulcers by elimination any possible causes and correcting systemic
Cannulation requires careful co-ordination between surgeon and perfusionist to avoid air embolus formation which is associated with significant morbidity as the brain is susceptible to injury from micro-embolisms(Moorjani, Viola and Ohri, 2011). This should then be monitored at regular intervals whilst on bypass by the perfusionist (Curle et al., 2007; Hwang and Sinclair, 1997). After cannulation, high pressure within the aortic cannula might indicate a problem with the positioning of the cannula, such as inside a false lumen or the wall creating a iatrogenic dissection(Khonsari, Sintek and Ardehali, 2008). It is for this reason that it should be announced by the perfusionist whether or not a “good swing” is achieved to confirm lumen placement(Moorjani, Viola and Ohri, 2011; Hwang and Sinclair, 1997). The other two alarms which turn off the pump if activated are
Lithotripsy When you are suffering from stones, your urologist may suggest lithotripsy. Unless you have had it before, you are probably wondering what it is. Lithotripsy is a medical procedure that is utilized to treat specific types of kidney stones as well as stones in the gallbladder or liver. Lithotripsy is a unique type of treatment since it uses sound waves to break up stones, making them smaller. That way it is easier for the body to pass them, making the patient more comfortable in the process.