Veiled Chameleon Mechanism

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Physiological Mechanisms of The Veiled Chameleon and The Bluegill Fish
Animal Physiology (BIOL 310-01)
Dr. Gregg Ward
March 17, 2016

Collaborators:
Brittney M. Johnson: The Veiled Chameleon
Marcia Taylor: Bluegill Fish

Organism: The Veiled Chameleon (Reptile) Organism: Bluegill (Fish)
Kingdom: Animalia Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Squamata Order: Perciformes
Family: Chamaeleonidae Family: Centrarchidae
Genus: Chamaeleo Genus: Lepomis
Species: C. calyptratus Species: L. macrochirus
Feeding
Feeding occurs in the Veiled Chameleon using a tongue shooting mechanism. Structured on the hyoid bone, the tongue is made
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The main body parts of the system are the jaws, small triangular teeth, tubular stomach, intestinal tract, and cloaca (Berre & Bartlett, 2009). Initiating the process of digestion is mechanical digestion, which occurs in the mouth. Following the seizure of the prey by the chameleon, the prey is clenched between the jaws and crushed using the organism’s small triangular teeth. Subsequently, the food is chewed and pushed from the mouth to the esophagus of the chameleon by its tongue, and from the esophagus into the tubular stomach of the chameleon. In the stomach, chemical digestion occurs. The internal environment of the stomach has strong acids and active enzymes that trigger the occurrence of chemical reactions that begin to break down the ingested food. Thereafter, the process of absorption follows, whereas absorption of nutrients occurs in the intestinal tract. The process of absorption is short and is followed by excretion via the cloaca. Similarly, the liver and the pancreas assist in the process of excretion. Additionally, urinary and fecal waste travel through urinary passages and generative canals that connect to the cloaca and are emitted from the cloaca as jelly like, brown droppings. The excretion of feces is usually followed by the emission of urate solids or uric acid crystals that are yellowish in color and appear paste…show more content…
The endocrine system, particularly the hormones it produces releases, aids a homeostatic chemical balance required for the growth and sexual development of the chameleons. Additionally, the hormones regulate biorhythms that facilitate reproduction and initiate behavioural changes inclusive of courtship and the receptiveness and unreceptiveness of the female. The reproductive system of the chameleon is equipped with paired gonads present in both the male and female species and these structures are located near the kidneys. Differing reproductive structures in the female and male species are the presence of two oviducts in the female, while the male has “two erectile hemipenes located in pouches at the ventral base of their tails, behind the cloaca” (Berre & Bartlett, 2009). Coincidentally, hormones and nerves aid in carrying information and aiding communication between cells, and are supported by endocrinal and neuronal glands inclusive of the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus, which controls the production and release of hormones respectively. Males demonstrate courtship rituals as visual signals inclusive of behavioral head rolls or chin rubs, repeated color changes, consistent rocking body movements, and tail curling. In response, the female will change her color to indicate that she is indeed receptive to breeding. Appropriately, prior to the fertilization of its eggs, upon enough

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