It can also cause pain and discomfort in the shoulders, arms, neck, jaw, or the back. Usually angina is caused by coronary heart disease (CHD). Depending on the type of angina one has, knowing the many factors that can trigger an angina attack is very important. There are four different types of angina pectoris: Stable Angina Unstable Angina Variant (Prinzmetal) Angina Microvascular (MVD) Angina Stable angina is chest pain in medical terms. This type of chest pain occurs when one or more of the coronary arteries are either blocked or narrowed.
In the process, surgeons create a fistula, this is a connection between a large artery and vein which is mostly in the arm to allow large quantity of blood into the vein. When this happens, the vein expands or swell rather making its wall increase in thickness to withstand the needle sticks attached from the body to the dialyzer. The only limitation in creating a fistula is that it takes a while to mature, probably weeks or months for it to be ready for use hence this method, haemodialysis requires a lot of planning. In the case that renal failure occurs abruptly and there is need for immediate attention, then the doctors can use special tubes that will be inserted into a larger blood vessel in the arm, leg or even the chest. The tubes might be required to stay in the same
Rupture involving the splenic vein, the gastrointestinal tract, or the pancreatic ducts. Part 2: Causes and Risk Factors What causes splenic artery aneurysm? Possible causes include atherosclerosis, portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis, and pregnancy. Multiparity and pregnancy-associated hormonal effects as well as portal hypertension are believed to cause dilatation of the weak walls of the splenic artery. Other possible causes include congenital defects such as berry aneurysms and arterio-venous malformations.
The priorities are to detect intraoperative MI early, give effective treatment, and transfer the patient to ICU urgently for further cardiac care.  When myocardial ischemia is because of hypovolemia, hypotension should be primarily managed with IV fluids in the form of crystalloids or colloids and blood products. Inotropic support is required when there is no response to fluid administration.In this case myocardial ischemic changes were because of hypovolemic shock. Hence by correcting hypotension secondary to hypovolemia the myocardial ischemic changes were reversed.
Hypovolemic shock is the body’s response to a significant loss of fluids that disrupts the volume of blood within the body the body, causing disturbance in normally functioning systems. The most common cause of such response is from rapid loss of fluids, such as with hemorrhage, a sudden acute blood loss that can be externally or internally found throughout the human body (Tortura 781). Hypovolemic shock will then come secondary to hemorrhagic shock, the body’s initial response rapid blood loss as a way of trying to slow down or stop bleeding. When blood loss cannot be controlled with hemorrhagic shock, hypovolemic shock is then initiated (Kolecki, “Background”). However, significant fluid loss can also cause in relation to hypovolemic shock can occur in other ways, such as with excessive sweating, diarrhea, vomiting, or from a lack of fluid intake (Tortura 781).
This process of remodeling can spread to the other ventricle and to the atria.  The long-term effects of the remodeling are a further weakening of the heart muscle and it can eventually lead to heart failure. There are many postulated causes of DCM, including pregnancy, diabetes, alcohol, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.  In 50%, the cause is not known (idiopathic DMC).  For this systematic review, we focus on the thyroid levels in patients with DCM.
These are abnormal dilations in vessel walls and narrowing/ hardening of the arteries, respectively. Vascular surgeons are focused on fixing vessels in nearly all parts of the body with the exception of the brain and heart. They also deal with peripheral vascular disorders like ulcers on the lower extremities and poor circulation. Surgical approaches to vascular repair may be endovascular (i.e. closed) or open surgery.
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a case of uncontrolled activation of proteins that are involved in the clotting process such as thrombin, fibrinolytic proteins, platelets, and coagulation factors. DIC occurs due to inflammation, trauma, infection, and shock. The presence of mucocutaneous bleeding is an evidence of DIC. Disseminated intravascular coagulation has acute and chronic phases. In acute phase, a patient will have severe symptoms while in chronic phase a patient may suffer from inflammation of blood vessels or adenocarcinoma.
Extra Credit Paper: Congestive Heart Failure There are many different diseases in the world today. One of those diseases is congestive heart failure. Congestive heart failure, according to Chris Linney, an Irish veterinarian, “is whereby abnormal cardiac function results in the accumulation and retention of water and sodium, most frequently resulting in pulmonary or systemic volume overload leading to congestion.” congestive heart failure takes place when the lungs can fill up with fluid, which can be fatal or can cause congestion. There are three different levels/types of congestive heart failure: 1) is acute congestive heart failure, 2) minimal congestive heart failure, and 3) advanced heart failure. Each of the levels has a variety of ways
Perfusion : Perfusion is the process of a body delivering blood to a capillary bed in itsbiological tissue. The word is derived from the French verb "perfuser" meaning to "pour over or through". Tests verifying that adequate perfusion exists are a part of a patient's assessment process that are performed by medical or emergency personnel. The most common methods include evaluating a body's skin color, temperature, condition and capillary refill. Perfusionists employ artificial blood pumps to propel open-heart surgery patients' blood through their body tissue, replacing the function of the heart while the cardiac surgeon operates.
When this gene has been mutated, it is unable to perform effectively, leaving exocrine based organs unprotected. (Human Genome Cystic Fibrosis) The symptoms of cystic fibrosis can vary from case to case, but the most common symptoms include male infertility, persistent coughing, salty-tasting skin, frequent lung infections such as penuomonia and bronchitis, shortness of breath, wheezing, weight-loss, and difficult bowel movements. Often times the acronym, CF, to represent cystic fibrosis. People with cystic fibrosis make it a very big priority to have minimal contact with