The bending scale factor is calculated using the relation moment in Prototype /Moment in model. This Scale Factor is applied to the real time bridges which having the same geometry and loading conditions. Fig 3: Model Detailing The prototype model of concrete bridge cast for the critical load obtained. A single pier with beam deck of the bridge is designed. Three numbers of samples were cast and are kept in curing tank.
From the previous works, one can observe that the effects of size dependent and surface energy studied separately and there are a few papers that both of these effects are coincidentally studied. For this purpose, we can referee the readers to Ref . In that paper, the authors applied the surface energy and the nonlocal elasticity theory to predict the vibration characteristic of a non-uniform beam. The vibration frequencies of the non-uniform nonobeam are computed by the Rayleigh–Ritz technique. In according to that paper, the size dependent and surface effects play important roles on the vibration frequencies of the non-uniform nanobeam.
2. Summary of the simulations performed on the Wigley hull 4. Results and discussion: 4.1 Drag Coefficients: The steady state values for the drag forces were obtained by observing the dependence of the drag force in time, identifying the instants during which the forces are oscillating around a fixed value, and time-averaging the forces throughout that time range. Examples of the convergence and averaging on Wigley hull cases are shown in Figure 8 and Figure 9. Fig.
• Comparison Experimental Modal Analysis and Finite Element Method –– Maximum 30% error value of natural frequency - Correlation. – Natural Frequency from FEM higher than Natural Frequency from EMA. • Model Updating – 2 parameter were selected : the dynamic modulus of BIW structure, E and mass density of BIW structure, • Structural Dynamics Modification - Error reduce to maximum 5%. CONCLUSION This research could be accomplished successfully within the time frame. All the methods used in experimental and simulation study are feasible.
However, the ones that have been widely studied and reported to significantly show accurate results are briefly highlighted. These are: linear spring dashpot model, non-linear (Hertz-Mindlin) spring dashpot model and elastic perfectly plastic contact model (Mishra, 2003a). According Mishra (2003a), the linear spring dashpot model assumes a constant stiffness and the interactions between particles are elastic. The contact force at each incremental time ∆t in the normal direction is given by equation 2.4: "F" _"nor" ("t+∆t" )"= " "F" _"nor" "(t) - " "v" _"nor" "k" _"nor" "∆t + " "D" _"nor" "v" _"nor" 2.4 Where: Fnor (t+∆t) = the normal component of the force at an increased ∆t Fnor (t) = Normal component of the force at the previous ∆t vnor = Normal component of the relative velocity knor = Normal stiffness Dnor = Normal component of the damping coefficient The Hertz-Mindlin contact model differs from the linear-spring dashpot model by varying the normal stiffness (knor) with the level of overlapping of the contacting particles. The force-displacement of the model in relation the applied pressure is given by Equation 2.5.
displacement, velocity and acceleration as a function of natural vibration period or frequency and damping ratio of single degree of freedom system (SDOF).As the seismic forces strikes the foundation of structure it will move with the ground motion. It shows that movement of structure is generally more than the ground motion. The movement of structure depends on the natural frequency of vibration,. The revised IS 1893-2002 uses the dynamic analysis by response spectrum. In this method the most five important engineering properties of the structures i.e, the fundamental natural period of vibration of the building ( T in seconds), damping properties of the structure ,Type of foundation provided for the building , Importance factor of the building ,the ductility of the structure represented by response reduction factor are considered .
For a given vibrational transition, the rotational transitions ΔJ=+1 give one set of lines called the R-branch, while the rotational transitions ΔJ=-1 give the other set of lines called the P-branch. All the lines of both branches form a vibration-rotation band. For ΔJ=+1 J’=J’’+1 J’-J’’=+1 ΔεJ, v= ϖ0 + 2B (J’’+1) cm-1 J’’=0, 1, 2…….. For ΔJ=-1 J’’=J’+1 J’-J’’=-1 ΔεJ, v= ϖ0 + 2B(J’’+1) cm-1 J’’=0,1,2………. ΔεJ, v= ϖ0 + 2Bm m=-2,-1, +1, +2……. This equation represents the combined vibrational-rotational spectrum.
In section 5, a comparison of errors for both the techniques with respect to an exact solution is projected herein in terms of accuracy. Numerical features of the rate of convergence are also presented graphically. Finally the conclusions of the paper are given in the last section. 2. Advection Diffusion Equation The one-dimensional advection-diffusion equation  is given as ∂C/∂t+u ∂C/∂x=D (∂^2 C)/(∂x^2 )………(1) where C represents the solute concentration [ML-3] at x along longitudinal direction at time t, D is the solute dispersion, if it is independent of position and time, is called dispersion coefficient [L2T-1], t = time [T]; x = distance [L] and,
4. Hydrogen boding-de-shielding and downfield shift is dependent upon the strength of H-bonding. The shifting is affected by concentration and also temperature. Electronegative atoms such as Fluoride which attach to the hydrogen bonding proton induces the attraction of electrons towards F resulting in the reduced in electron density around the proton.