TITLE: SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS BACTEREMIA, A CAUSE FOR ACUTE PANCREATITIS? Authors: Merjona Saliaj, MD, Sikka Gautam, MD, Norbert Brau, MD Institutions: Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (Bronx); James J. Peters VA Bronx Medical Center North Central Bronx Hospital INTRODUCTION Pancreatitis associated with bacterial infection has been previously studied. Several case reports have described Salmonella as a possible cause of pancreatitis. Two retrospective studies have shown increased levels of pancreatic enzymes and clinical pancreatitis in patients infected with Salmonella enteritidis. A prospective matched study, 30 patients positive for Salmonella enteritidis, 16% exhibited increased serum lipase levels, however no pancreatic changes
One of the treatments for Leukemia is chemotherapy, and animals had a really important role in the creation of this. Animal testing also helped creating imatinib (Gilvec) which is a drug that treats leukemia and gastrointestinal tumors (Understanding Animal Research-Leukemia). Imatinib has increased life expectancy in an incredible way. The survival rate for childhood Leukemia in 1962 was 4%, but thanks to therapies and treatment, today 80% of the children survive
One trivalent vaccine formulation can be given with a jet injector, for people between the ages of 18 and 64 years and there is also a nasal spray, used mainly in toddlers (ages two through five) and the elderly (70 years old and up). The ingredients vary between the types, but all include egg proteins, some preservatives, and stabilizers such as sucrose. Many adults in 2018 still believe that mercury is used in the influenza vaccine, but according to Rep. Dave Weldon on April 2 (2004), he introduced along with Rep. Carolyn Maloney, hr 4169- the mercury free vaccine act of 2004. This was an act that would then phase out the use of mercury in all vaccines in the next three years, paying particular attention to childhood
Using these new adaptive systems, Ischii et al obtained excellent bloodless field almost in all their patients (20, 21). On the other hand, the mean maximal tourniquet inflation pressures were 233 ± 18 and 235 ± 27 mmHg in Ishii’s studies higher than our results. The main reasons of these high inflation pressures were the additional pressure of 100 mmHg added on SBP and the SBP changes during the surgical procedures and the mean maximal change of 28±13 and 33±22 mmHg in SPB during tourniquet periods. Moreover, their tourniquet system the blood pressure measurement was set to cycle automatically with 2.5 minutes of interval (20, 21). Since, peripheral nerve injuries due to automatic blood pressure monitors even with 3 minutes interval have been reported before, the extremity in which the non-invasive blood pressure measurements done might be also exposed to risk
Standard Precautions and Isolation Techniques Standard Precautions first appeared in 1996 as a revision of CDC isolation procedures and is a synthesis of two other precautions, including Universal Protection (UP) and also Body Substance Isolation (BSI) (Craig 111). This applies to all patients that receive health care in patient care facilities, regardless of infection status and diagnostics (Craig 111). This is because microorganisms and bacteria grows best when environments contain moisture, warmth, and a good food supply and can spreads through the nose, mouth, or open wounds. Standard precautions also include different types of isolation techniques, including Strict Isolation, Respiratory Isolation, Enteric Isolation, and Reverse Isolation. (Craig 111-116).
It is reported that the spores can survive up to 40 years in water or soil. Antibiotic prophylaxis Anthrax can be treated in its earliest stages with penicillin (often delivered intravenously), tetracycline, ciprofloxacin or doxycycline. Evidence of antibiotic effectiveness comes from use in human and animals infected with Bacillus anthracis. Antibiotics related to ciprofloxacin including chloramphenicol, erythromycin and some cephalosporins were also found to be effective. The antibiotic treatment is highly effective in early stage of the disease and becomes largely ineffective in later stages with severe complications.
The results of this experiment showed that immune response against HIV can be achieved in humans (8). Following this experiment, almost more than 256 clinical trials (phase Ι and phase ΙΙ) including over 44, ooo healthy volunteers have tested candidate vaccines against HIV (8-13). Of these clinical trials, only six candidate vaccines have achieved clinical efficacy. These six vaccines include
Penicillin was a groundbreaking discovery and saved many lives, and also helped with future medical discoveries. In 1928, a scientist named Alexander Fleming discovered Penicillin. It was used a great deal as an antibiotic in World War II, it saved countless lives and improved medical work in the early 20th century. Penicillin is any group of chemically similar substances obtained from molds of the genus Penicillium, a drug used to fight bacteria and infections. (J. D. Hamblin, 2005).
In addition, phages can also overcome host resistance mutations. However, they can be eliminated by the body's defense mechanisms. Phage therapy has been used as an alternative to antibiotics. The use of natural phages to treat bacterial infection has very known history in the western medicine. Antibiotics are one of the most successful forms of chemotherapy in the history of medicine.
Serratia: Serratia’s a group of gram (-negative), facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Serratia are most common and pathogenic of the species within the genus, S. marcescens, is often the sole infective agent and frequently causes health facility infections. S. marcescens is often found in showers, bathroom bowls, and around wetted tiles. The bacterium is associate timeserving, human infective agent, capitalizing on its ability to make integrated surface communities referred to as biofilms where it will. S. marcescens is assumed to be transmitted through close transmission.