These theories support the main assumptions that crime is a choice and will not occur if the opportunity is absent and rewards are diminished. Routine activity theory. The routine activity theory takes for granted that there are many motivated offenders. Crime rate variance thus depends on the supply of suitable targets and available guardians (Cohen & Felson, 1979). This theory supports the situational crime prevention theory that crime is a choice and can be deterred through the removal of suitable targets or guardianship.
There is a link between all three conditions. Victimization can only be committed when a motivated criminal meets a suitable target in the absence of a capable guardian (Miller, 2012). On the contrary, the absence of any of these elements can be sufficient to prevent victimization from taking place (Branic, 2015). Crime and victimization is the outcome of an opportunity that presents itself during social activities that take place on the streets on the daily basis. This theory is thus significantly associated to the case study in the following
This misconception and understanding of the routine activities approach has changed and it is now believed to be able to be applied in understanding offenders and criminal context, instead of merely a means to explain or predict the risk of criminal victimisation (Felson, 1997: 209). Cohen and Felson (1979: 593) describe routine activities as “any recurrent and prevalent activities which provide for basic population and individual needs, whatever their biological or cultural origins”. Therefore, routine activities is
In order to move up the ranks in their gangs, their crimes become more gruesome causing them to become traumatized. Initially, youth feel a sense of sympathy for the family of the victims, but it is short lived and after the guilt is passed they immerse themselves once in crime. Kelly, Anderson and Penden (2009) said that exposure to gang violence at an early stage makes the perpetrator feel sympathy for the victim, however, committing the act may lead to desensitization. Futhermore, violence increases the likelihood of aggression and violent behaviour in youth, which stimulates aggressive thoughts and behaviours. Youths which have aggressive thoughts influences their interpretation of situation, such that they inflict hostile behaviour on people.
The violence can be physical, emotional, or sexual. The National Crime Victimization Survey, surveyed U.S. households in which individuals are asked about their victimization experiences during the previous 6 months. Individuals who report experiencing a victimization event complete an incident report for each event. Within this detailed incident report, individuals are asked to identify their relationship with the perpetrator. Violent incidents perpetrated by spouse or ex-spouse, boyfriend, girlfriend and former boyfriend/girlfriend are considered in the survey.
The criminal activities theory talks about crime events (Criminal Justice, n.d.) It looks at why some people commit crimes and what are the motivations to commit the crimes. This theory suggests that the daily routine of society could cause or create the opportunity for a crime. All you need is a likely offender, a target, and the absence of a guardian to create an opportunity for a crime. Suggestions made to reduce crime from this theory try to alter the routines and limit opportunities to prevent crimes. Another theory related to criminal activity would be the social control theory.
When deciding the best time and place to commit a crime, perpetrators think through these elements precisely. Since they wish to avoid detection, criminals will frequently blend in with the crowd. If a criminal is going to steal from someone and sees a law enforcement officer around, he or she is less likely to commit that crime to avoid trouble. Routine Activities Theory argues that crime is a routine function of peoples’ lives which white collar crime can be used to dispute this
The cycle of violence theory that was developed by comparing the link between childhood trauma and subsequent criminal offending acts (Belknap 2006:82). The cycle of violence is a pattern that states that children who are subjected to childhood neglect and/or violence (physical; sexual; or emotional) are more likely to engage in criminal behavior as they get older. The criminal behavior may begin while they are still a minor and continue throughout adulthood or it may begin as an adult depending on their current surroundings and strains. The cycle consists of tension building, explosive action or behavior, and then a honeymoon phase, which repeats itself until the cycle is stopped by some kind of professional help or judicial interruption.
Many crimes involve the use of force or violence against victims. Crime victims of all types of crime may experience trauma - physical damage to their bodies or emotional wounds or shock caused by the violence against them. Reactions to trauma vary from person to person and can last for hours, days, weeks, months, or years. Physical trauma: Crime victims may experience physical trauma—serious injury or shock to the body, as from a major accident. Victims may have cuts, bruises, fractured arms or legs, or internal injuries.
Crime is a social phenomenon. Crime can not be controlled, it can be highlighted. Criminality represents the totality of human acts through which criminal norms have been violated and have occurred in a given territory and within a certain period of time. Evaluating numerical or qualitative crime can not help us determine the rate of crime. In order to establish the crime rate, we must have at least 2 elements: the element to which we report and the element that is reported.