Victimization Theory

1834 Words8 Pages
College of Criminal Justice Education
Negros Oriental State University
Main Campus I and II, Dumaguete City 6200 Philippines

Introduction Victimization in the Philippines are extremely increasing over the past decades and as of today, according to the statistical data from National Police Commission (NAPOLCOM) as they conducted a survey together with other countries in participating the International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) and they find out that property victimization have the largest number of person being victimized having with the percentage of 75% of the overall survey and it was followed by personal victimization with 17%, Domestic Violence with 2%, sexual victimization with 2% and other crimes
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Historically Social Learning Theory was developed by “Ronald L. Akers and Robert R. Burgess” from “Differential Theory by Edwin Sutherland”, in his study Sutherland stated that “Criminal behavior is learned through observation of acts by peers and environment.” In social learning theory (Albert Bandura 1977) agrees with the behavior learning theories of classical conditioning and operant conditioning. However, he adds two important ideas: 1.Mediating processes occur between stimuli & responses 2.Behavior is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning. Considering the generality of the theory as an explanation for an individual’s participation in(or lack thereof) prosocial and pro-criminal behaviors,more attention is devoted in the following paragraphs to fleshing out the foir central concepts of Aker’s social learning theory that have received considerable(yet varying) amounts of attention and emperical support in the criminological literature: Differential Association, Definitions, Differential Reinforcement,and imitation(Akers, 1985,1998;Akers et…show more content…
In addition ,Angel on 1968 also stated that both Local insiders and Outsiders may be tempted into committing crimes at crime Generators locations.On the other hand, some researchers also elaborated how Crime attractors defines and how it affects victimization, In the year 1991 and 1993b Brantingham &Brantingham stated that the attraction is created by an ecological label, often supplemented by the intending offenders personal pasr history,establishing that location as a known place to go for that kind of crime. As support to the study researchers like Rengert (1994) and by Langworthy and LeBeau(1992a and 1992b) speculated that,such crime-attracting areas can also generate other types of crime. Victimization spares no one but in Crime Generators and Crime attractors victimization for example, Usually crime in bars happen during weekends (e.g. killing of FU Dumaguete photojournalism instructor in one of the drinking bars of Dumaguete), shoplifting occurs during hours the day and more in some stores than others, and tax evasions cluster around due dates. These circumstances concluded that criminality occurs in areas with high Crime generators and crime attractors factors regardless on what researchers stated on
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