Victimology Case Study

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Victimology is a study that refers to the emotional, economic and physical impairment of individuals suffering because of unlawful actions or omissions. The concept was initially used in 1947 by Beniamin Mendelsohn (Newburn, 2013). Basically, this study examines the victims predicament, that is the effect of the harms and lose imposed by offenders on their population target. In addition, it also examines how officers and agencies in the criminal justice system handle victims (Karmen, 2013). In the following essay an attempt will be made to discuss a case study about a late blinded police officer Mr. David Rathband who was victimized on duty. Firstly, this essay will identify and critical evaluate the relevant theory(s). Secondly, discuss different…show more content…
Theories

2.1 Lifestyle exposure theory Lifestyle exposure theory is a victimization theory that acknowledges the fact that not everyone leads the same lifestyle as the next person. Some lifestyles expose individuals to more harm than the other. Lifestyle refers to "routine daily activities, both vocational activities (work, school, keeping house, etc.) and leisure activities" (Hindelang, Gottfredson, and Garofalo 1978, p. 241). Both or one of the activities can result in a person being victimized. Demographic characteristics such as minority, single persons and males are risk factors of victimization as well as social status such as education, income and employment (Holtfreter, Reisig & Pratt, 2008). The case study links with this theory since the late Mr. Rathband vocation exposed him to being victimized and fits the demographic characteristics
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The theory looks at victimization from the criminals’ point of view. (Akers & Sellers, 2004). This theory states that victimization has an increased likelihood of occurring in the presence of three essential conditions namely motivated offender, suitable target and absence of a capable guardian. This theory focuses on the conditions of which victimization can occur. There is a link between all three conditions. Victimization can only be committed when a motivated criminal meets a suitable target in the absence of a capable guardian (Miller, 2012). On the contrary, the absence of any of these elements can be sufficient to prevent victimization from taking place (Branic, 2015). Crime and victimization is the outcome of an opportunity that presents itself during social activities that take place on the streets on the daily basis. This theory is thus significantly associated to the case study in the following
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