Custodial violence, including torture and death in the lock-ups, strikes heavy blow at the rule of law which demands that the powers of executive should not only be derived from law but also that they should be limited by law. The law of arrest expects both individual rights and the states’ collective responsibility towards the society. In most scenarios it becomes a challenge to strike a perfect balance between both. Transparency of action and accountability are two possible safeguards to prevent any abuse of power to arrest a citizen. Custodial violence broadly includes custodial deaths, torture and as per the new trend in the crime pattern even custodial rapes.
Communities or groups are considered marginalized on account of their distance from the centre’s political or economic power and consequent limited access to the decision making processes. Some marginalized groups are deliberately created and that limits their access to education and social welfare schemes. Some groups are marginalized because of the attitudes and actions of the dominant or majority group. This is a process often undertaken by the institutions controlled by the dominant powerful groups in society. Distinctions can be made between marginal groups and marginalized groups in society.
Introduction Structural violence is the end result of socioeconomic disparity. It is putting individuals at risk because of economic, cultural and gender classification. Structural violence is dangerous and is overlooked by millions of people. This crisis needs to be disclosed to the public. Often times structural violence is invisible to the average individual.
The long-term costs are difficult to estimate, but they place a big burden on communities and the nation as a whole, Perpetrators of hate crimes may use various forms of violence, for example personal violence, verbal threats and intimidation, arson, and all types of weapons. In 2014, 5479 hate crimes were reported to the
According to Almosaed (2012), “The use and meaning of violence is connected with power. It is broadly the case that in most societies, social, economic, political and interpersonal power remains with men” (p. 200). Any form of domestic violence leads to physical, mental and psychological damage to the victim. The victim begins to blame themselves for the abuse. The main reason why the victim is reluctant to speak out is because the abuser builds a sense of fear in the mind of the victim.
Such “inequality traps” (Rao, 2006) are believed to be highly correlated with the unequal distribution of power and are consequently considered an important cause of ethnic conflict and immobility. Communities like Dalits have suffered from multiple historical injustices are not only likely to be economically deprived, but also socially marginalised, politically insignificant in terms of the politics of “voice” as distinct from the “vote,” humiliated, dismissed, and subjected to intense disrespect in and through the practices of everyday life. Even after these
A violent conflict involves at least two parties using physical force to resolve competing claims or interests. Violent conflicts may occur among individuals or groups not affiliated with a government and usually involve more than one confrontation. The different types of violent conflict include the smaller scale conflicts such as blood feud and gang wars, struggles such as insurgencies, which is the rebellion against a constituted authority, terror campaigns and genocides. However, the most well known type of violent conflict would be war. Beliefs can be defined as confidence in the truth or existence of something not immediately susceptible to rigorous proof usually an in the context of ideology, religion or philosophy.
Whatever the cause, statelessness has serious consequences for people in almost every country and in all regions of the world. Stateless persons are often denied enjoyment of a range of rights, including access to identity documents, education, employment and healthcare. Statelessness affects not only local communities, by effectively marginalizing and disenfranchising certain groups, but the international community as a whole, by making people more vulnerable to human trafficking and other forms of exploitation, such as recruitment by violent groups. Statelessness can both lead to, and result from, forced displacement. It can also contribute to political and social tensions and, where large populations are excluded or marginalized, can impair a State’s economic and social
Ethnocentrism is a major reason for divisions amongst members of different races and religious groups in a society. In international relations, ethnocentrism creates conflicts and inhibits resolution of conflicts. There are extreme forms of ethnocentrism that pose serious social problems such as racism, colonialism and ethnic cleaning. It is difficult to completely prevent ethnocentrism but it can be decreased by raising awareness of it. In general, ethnocentrism has been described as an individual psychological disposition which has both positive and negative outcomes.
Due to several terrorist attacks in Pakistan it creates fear among the nation. The peoples of Pakistan want to get rid of these terrorist attacks so, the government of Pakistan started operation zarb-e-azb in North wazirastan. This operation reduced the terrorist but on the other hand many innocent native people are also affected. They are known as ‘internally displaced persons’ in short IDP’s. They suffer from many problem and