In the Virginia Resolution, written on December 24, 1798, legislator James Madison opposed the acts, as Congress was exercising “a power not delegated by the Constitution,” and in actuality, Congress acted in an “expressly and positively forbidden” manner against the amendments by approving of the Alien and Sedition Acts. The power given to the president should have been a “universal alarm” to Americans because it “leveled against [the] right (...) of free communication among the people,” (Madison). Madison depicted that the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional because it gave Congress, specifically the president, too much control of people’s liberties, that was not condoned in the Constitution. He argued that the acts did not protect people’s
In other words, the Federalists were worried they would lose their already set status when it came to society and the political world. Federalists were strict believers in what is stated in the constitution and questioned the legality in purchasing the Louisiana Territory. The Federalists believed that the Louisiana Purchase would only harm the community, not help them so they were against the purchase of the land. Jefferson, when contemplating the purchase of the land, needed to take what his people felt into consideration. He polled the representatives with the treaty passing with a 24-7
Immediately after the issuances of the proclamations, the United States government had to decide on whether to view actions/movements of the Confederacy against the blockade as an act of war. Technically, any rebellious acts would be considered as opposing the United States and thus seen as an “arm insurrection” and deemed treasonous. However, the government only considered the Confederacy as rebels rather than as belligerents. According to The Civil War at Sea, “Throughout the war, Lincoln insisted that the Confederacy had no legal standing as a sovereign entity; those who had taken up arms against the government, he declared were merely rebels.” This has a contradictory factor to it due to the very nature of the blockade itself. The blockade calls for the act of sealing off the enemy and seizing their ships which can be seen as acts of war.
The Speech in the Virginia Convention by Patrick Henry and the Speech in the Convention by Benjamin Franklin both have similarities and differences but they are both about the views on compromise and when to stand firm. Patrick Henry had a better standpoint then Benjamin Franklin did in their speeches. Patrick Henry’s speech had a stronger point of view than Benjamin Franklin The difference between these speeches is that Patrick Henry implores his countrymen to declare war against the British he wanted to fire up the representatives at the convection in VA. He did point out that he was tired of trying to get the England to understand. Patrick Henry was and anti-federalist.
The speech’s main purpose is to persuade people to fight for their freedom. Patrick Henry’s speech is truly meant to persuade the Virginia Convention to prepare for war if the British government fails to comply to the needs of the convention. He uses an urgent and inspirational tone to deliver a thought provoking speech. This is essential to getting his point across, and that the need for assertiveness is significant. The convention was practically split in half, some wanting peace no matter what, and others who wanted immediate action toward the Britains.
This means that despite the impacts of the war, many in America still believed that America’s role (and the best way to achieve its interests) was by leaving other nations alone. This is because the war was extremely unpopular. Many Americans did not trust that President Wilson campaigned for reelection on a platform of anti-war, but then got the United States involved. They also distrusted that he had promised a just peace in his fourteen point plan, but ended up with secret land deals and a punishing Treaty of Versailles, as opposed to a rehabilitory treaty. As a result, the irreconcilables in Congress voted multiple times to strike down the League of Nations.
The flag of the Confederacy was also another symbol of Southern Nationalism. “The Confederate government quickly became for the South, the successor to the federal government at Washington. A flag, the “ Stars and Bars,” was adopted for the new republic after a study by a committee that concluded that keeping the United States “Stars and Stripes” would be impractical and unpatriotic.” Southerners feared that white supremacy was in danger and feared slave rebellions. This was heightened by national events like John Brown’s Raid. This unified the South against the abolition of slavery
These events all led to the signing of the Alien and Sedition Acts (History 1). However, the Republicans were against these acts and argued that states had the right to nullify a federal law, leading to the creation of The Virgina and Kentucky Resolutions, which said that states have the power to choose which federal laws they want to follow. Since it was said that the states voluntarily joined the union, they could devide that the federal government went over its borders and pick and choose what federal laws they want to follow (United States History 1). The Alien and Sedition Acts severely detracted from natural rights, such as the freedom of speech. When the first ten amendments were ratified, citizens were promised the freedom of speech, allowing all humans to give their opinion about the government without punishment.
There have been many times where presidents of the United States make decisions that deal with critical problems of the nation. These actions have had varying rates of success. An example of this is the Nullification crisis in which South Carolina refused to honor the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 because they stated that they were unconstitutional. President Jackson had to revise the tariff so that everyone could agree on set taxes of imported goods and so that the country could focus on issues that would be more important in the long run. Another example is the Southern states’ secession from the United States.
The amendment however, would not come easy. “The amendment proposal failed at this point, in part, because of the makeup of the House. Abolition primarily was a Republican concern and most Democratic lawmakers seemed indifferent, if not actively opposed, to it” (Woog 78). President Lincoln address
These boycotts against British shipping were the best manner for the colonists to demonstrate their distain for British rule. In Virginia, the boycott of the ports was a significant move that ultimately pushed the citizens in the area towards independence. The other cause that pushed the gentry to revolution stemmed from the unforeseen consequences of their boycott of British shipping. This would result in their protests of 1774 turning into the revolutionary movement of 1775 up until the Treaty of Paris in 1783 that ended the war, giving independence to the United States (Holton xviii). Referred to as Non-exportation, this protest was directly against the Coercive Acts that Parliament adopted for the colonies (Holton 124).
During the war, the South tried to bring the political power under the control of a single authority. Southerners had long opposed a strong central government. Throughout the war, some find it difficult to cooperate with officials of both the Confederacy, and their own states and cities. States rights supporters back the war, but opposed the draft of other actions needed to carry out. The Battle of Bull Run was a battle against South Carolina and the Union of Confederacy.
On November 22, 1787 James Madison forged the Federalist 10, to instill upon Americans why factions are and would be the ultimate demise of the American government. Although Madison had stated that factions, also known as political parties, were a terrible thing, we have them today, and it is evident that they are a very big dilemma. According to Federalist 10, Madison argued that factions would harm the country, a democracy would encourage factions, and only a republic would alleviate the issue. One of the first ideas that Madison had instilled upon the American people was the idea that factions are dangerous and could be catastrophic to the country. “Inflamed them with mutual animosity, and rendered them much more disposed to vex and oppress each other than to co-operate for their common good.”(Federalist 10) Madison is trying to say that factions are more likely to anger and subdue each other, due to a mutual friction that they have between them.
He favored going to war with Great Britain. He also served in the United States House of Representatives and was Secretary of War under James Monroe and Secretary of State under John Tyler. John Calhoun argued that states or groups could nullify, which meant to cancel, a federal law. Calhoun also argued that the states had the power to decide whether federal laws are constitutional. Calhoun said that it is to allow the
Many Americans as well as Republicans felt it conflicted with the Constitution and encroached on the states’ rights which were seen as being unconstitutional. Jefferson once again disproved of their ideas and by passing the sedition acts into law, an assault on the 10th amendment. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798 to protest against The Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798. They asked the people of the states to reject the national government because it was viewed as acting on implied powers, which were once again leading them back to a sovereign government. The foundations as well as principles that America was founded on were being disgracefully misconstrued.