Virtual Clinic Case Study

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3.1 Virtual Clinics Benefits and Services

The following are some of the benefits provided by virtual clinics: a) Provision of clinical supports: remote and real time direct patient care will be provided where health care professionals diagnose patients remotely through video conferencing with direct conversations. This helps to overcome the geographical barriers, connecting patients who are not in the same physical location with the health care professionals.
b) Clinical Data Transfer: Sharing of compressed video, audio, medical data such as scanned X-ray, ultrasound and compressed images from one clinic to another.
c) Patient Monitoring: Disease surveillance and patient monitoring are preventive measures. These help in providing useful information
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The EHR provides patients health information; these include medical

history, contact, hospitalizations and insurance information, family history, list of medications taken or currently prescribed, and allergies [15].
d) Interoperability, Privacy and Security: the ICT infrastructures, facilities must be interoperable. The privacy and patients confidentiality requirements as properly followed in the conventional hospital must be applied in this case with strict compliance. The video conferencing systems, data bases, work stations should be encrypted to provide adequate security for the patient records.
e) Reliable Power Supply: the clinics must have access to reliable, clean and sustainable power supply at least during the consultations. Generally, there is power deficit in Africa and the dominant of the people without access are in rural and isolated areas which are characterised with high rates of poverty, low income, lack of supporting infrastructure and extreme terrain features making it challenging to extend the electric grid. Furthermore, the market needs and lack of access to financial resources are also constraints.
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This will however, depend on how well the health care system is able to effectively exploit the capabilities of the ICT. Although the global strive to bridge the access gap is growing and this has been the giant strive of the sustainable development goals (SDG
202020). However, universal access has not been achieved as there are still large percentages of the communities particularly in the developing countries that are currently underserved. Some technology options and universal models that would provide sustainable and cost effective access opportunities in Africa were highlighted [14, 16, 17]. These models were based on the field campaigns undertaken in some rural communities in
Nigeria. Table 1 illustrates a sample of some common basic and medical services and medical devices that are used in telemedicine. Fig 3. End-to- end virtual clinics connectivity

In Fig 3, we provided end-to- end connectivity for the virtual clinics. Considering energy and backhaul costs issues in most
Sub-Saharan Africa, the framework considers Energy Efficient
(Green) TV White Space (TVWS) broadband
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