As my team and I discovered a new fossil in our excavation project, the unknown site yielded the skull of a mysterious specimen. Our goal as reputable anthropologist was to analyze the specimen to the best of our ability so our team can provide the most probable and reliable taxonomic identification. In order for us to effectively interpret the results our experiment yielded, we needed to review our knowledge in human evolution. The field that uncovers the mystery of the evolution of humans is paleoanthropology, the study of human evolution through the fossil record. According to Walker-Pacheco (2010) hominins posses various characteristics that separate them from other primates, such as: bipedal locomotion and dental morphology.
After reading Sally M. Walker’s Written in Bone, one can understand this by looking at the book 's formatting, the message sent by the author, and the actual content. Before examining the actual content of the documentation, first one should investigate the composition. Looking at the formatting, it has numerous similarities to that of a common history textbook, with chapters and
The deformation known as clubfoot is a standout amongst the most widely recognized birth imperfections including the musculoskeletal framework. It presents intrinsic dysplasia of every single musculoskeletal tissue distal to the knee. It is a deformity in which the foot is twisted so that the sole cannot be placed flat on the ground. Understanding the microscopic structure of diseased tissues that characterize clubfoot are very important areas of research. The major component of the ligament, muscle, tendon, bone and joint cartilage involved in clubfoot is collagen.
In this chapter, an exhaustive literature review on the works reported in the area of hip prosthesis has been presented. Literatures available in the area of hip prosthesis are broadly classified into the following categories. • Biomechanics of Hip Joint. • Implant Materials and Its Biocompatibility. • Variations in Femur Geometry.
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head of the skeleton in most vertebrates. It supports the structures of the face and provides a protective cavity for the brain. The skull is composed of two parts, namely the cranium and the mandible. The skull contains the brain, and multiple sensory structures such as the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth. In the human these sensory structures are part of the
The foot (plural feet) is an anatomical structure found in many vertebrates. It is the terminal segment of a limb which supports weights and allows dislocation. In many animals with feet, the foot is a anatomize organ at the terminal part of the leg made up of one or more segments or bones, normally including claws or nails. The human foot is a strong and complex mechanical structure containing 26 bones, 33 joints (20 of which are actively articulated), and more than a hundred muscles, tendons, and ligaments (Kelikian AS et al., 2011). The joints of the foot are the ankle and subtalar joint and the interphalangeal connections of the foot.
The gross anatomy of human finger nail consists of the following: 1. Nail plate: The nail plate is mainly produced by the matrix which emerges via the proximal nail fold and is held in place by the lateral nail folds. It overlays the nail bed and detaches from the latter at the hyponychium which is the skin under the free edge of the plate. The nail plate has an average thickness of 0.25–0.6 mm. It is hard, yet slightly elastic, translucent, convex and is made up of approximately 25 layers of dead, keratinised, flattened cells which are tightly bound to one another via numerous membrane coating granules, intercellular links and desmosomes (cell structure specialized for cell-to-cell adhesion).
BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Clinical Background 2.1 The human spine The human spine (also referred to as vertebral column or spinal column) is a bony structure in the middle of the back starts at the base of the skull and continues to the pelvis. It consists of vertebrae (small bones) and joints (intervertebral disks) together to form a flexible and stable spinal column. The spinal cord and nerve roots are preserved by the vertebral body, supports the body and responsible for carrying weight. The disks allow movement in the spine and have a shock absorbing.
The four components of the axial skeleton are: SKULL (consists of 28 bones that include the cranium, which encloses and protects the brain and facial bones). VERTEBRAL COLUMN (supports the skull and protect the spinal cord). RIBS ( 12 pairs of bow shaped bones that protect the organs in the body cavities of the trunk). STERNUM ( aka breastbone and supports the collar bones). The Appendicular skeleton consists of: PECTORAL GIRDLE (consists of two shoulder blades and two collar bones, which articulate together to allow some movement).
Especially if there were people that were looking for her. I’d liked to use both constructing the face onto the skeleton without the artist having seen photographs of the once living person or reconstructing the face onto a plaster model of the skull. By doing these tests, we can learn, what ethnicity the person was, what they looked like, how tall they were, and what gender they were. With this information, one can piece everything together and get an extremely close idea of the characteristics the being