Baroque art was known to reflect more on religion tension of the time. Most of the artists reflected more on the desires of the Catholic Church in Rome, where the Roman Catholic was trying to affirm itself in the wake of the Protestants reformation. Most of the Baroque paintings were aimed in exhorting the divine majesty of the church, but the primary purpose of most of these paintings was to strengthen kingdoms that were operating under the religious influence like Spain and France. The Catholic Church dominated these two nations. Most of the paintings done tried to compare both Catholic and the Protestants religions.
The Protestant Reformation began with a movement made by a monk simply to criticize and challenge the actions of the Church. From the disapproval of selling indulgence to the demand of equality, multiple forces have sparked the inception of the Protestant Revolution. Martin Luther’s decision to take public stand against the Church was revolutionary to the society. A movement for religious reforms, known as the Protestant Reformation, was born. Luther’s beliefs were soon adopted by and appealed to every levels of society.
The doctrinal differences mentioned in the prayers were part of that conflict. When examining three of these differences in doctrine, and how Calvin’s prayers from the Commentary on Hosea touch on the subject, one can clearly see how the prayers illustrate the conflict between Roman Catholicism and the Protestant Reformation that was beginning. The first one of these conflicts was the issue of sanctification. In his first prayer, John Calvin is heard pleading with God that grace will remain extended to him and other believers. He admits that there is sin and wrongdoings in each and every person’s lives and prays that the Lord will restore his heart to a holy and righteous state.
The Counter Reformation was how the church responded to Martin Luther’s ideas on the church’s behavior and on his ideas about what was the right way to practice Catholicism. The Reformation was a time when different ideas about the church were coming out and so the church began to evolve in response to those ideas about the Catholic Church. Playle 2 The Reformation is defined as a 16th-century movement for religious reform, leading to the founding of Christian churches that rejected the Pope’s authority (Broderick, Robert C.).
The examination of a person as an individual in history has been an important aspect in understanding society and culture. The value that people in a society place on themselves as a whole has an effect on culture, art, and politics. Recognition of one’s individualism is an incredibly powerful tool for someone to possess. The role of individual, individual determination, and the value of the individual have evolved through the Baroque period to the Industrial Revolution to the Romantics. I believe the time where there was a major first shift from focusing on higher powers to the individual is when people split off from the Catholic church to pursue their choice of religion: The Reformation.
Christian missionaries have participated in imperialist domination of the Native Americans and Asians, in the past, by imposing cultural changes on native populations in the name of religion. They have succeeded in removing their cultural identities. The technological disparity between the new world and the old world allowed for the west to gain a distinct psychological advantage over the new world. Most of the European missionaries during the colonial era were Catholic. That was partly because two Catholic countries, Spain and Portugal, took the lead in exploration.
The Catholic Church has employed for millennia several forms of art, most notably baroque paintings. Consequently, this served as a firm response to the rise of Protestantism due to the efforts of Martin Luther to destabilize the Church for its institutional abuses. Furthermore, the upper echelons of the clergy mandated any artwork that was to be formulated should be characteristic to the dogmas of Catholicism such as the Transfiguration of Christ and canvases that pertains to Scripture should be direct and fathomable to the ordinary believer of Jesus at that time, such as country-dwellers. It would be carefully assumed that the raison d’etre of the espousal of baroque paintings by the Catholic hierarchy stemmed from its ability to evoke passion and devotion amongst the people, instead of rational thought, which would intensify the foundations of Catholicism at that time when it was vulnerable to Luther’s revolt. Moreover, baroque representations lean towards expressing prodigious drama penetrating light and dark shadows.
Renaissance scholars were encouraged by the corruptions of the church to explore different avenues than previous medieval scholastics (2). This allowed scholars to “re-birth” their cultural learnings and challenge the authority of the Roman Church, that ultimately led to the Reformation, and resulted in the establishment of Protestant Churches (1-13).
In the old Catholicism days church and state were one thing. They united the people using the church and controlled them using the Bible and their status as religious leaders. When the United States was formed we made a distinct separation between church and state. The founding fathers saw that people were much more peaceful and united despite their different religious beliefs. George Washington in his farewell address said, “of 'all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports.” The Catholics would have argued that religion and morality are the basis of every thought and therefore you cannot have a government free of a national religion.
There have been plenty of works which relates Catholic religion to what the individual attains, but for Bradley T. Ewing, there have been a lot of things written about the effects of Catholic schooling on educational attainment, and to a lesser extent, his future. There has only been a little research about the effects of being raised in a Catholic religion has on his future. (Ewing, 2000) Since there have been previous studies on the benefits of Catholic schooling, we now try to focus on its over-all effects. As I assume these previous researches as Bradley Ewing would say, are focused only on the benefits, which means the better effects of it. Is it then possible that we try to find a pattern where we try to prove that being raised in a Catholic