1.3 Essential Questions What is the structure and function of DNA? DNA is in the form of a double helix. Each subunit of DNA is known as a nucleotide containing a phosphate group (negative charge), ribose sugar, and nitrogenous base. The four different nitrogenous bases in DNA are paired with another nucleotide containing the complementary nitrogenous base. These pairs are Adenine and Thymine, and Cytosine and Guanine.
Protein interact with the DNA with its positively charged residues. Protein molecule interact with DNA by means of hydrogen bonding mainly. The hydrogen bonding play an essential role for many bio-molecular interaction. We can found this kind of interaction during protein-protein interaction, DNA protein interaction,
Principles of Human Physiology, 4e (Stanfield) Chapter 2 The Cell: Structure and Function 2.1 Multiple Choice Questions Figure 2.1 Using Figure 2.1, answer the following questions: 1) Which of the following nucleotide sequences accurately reflects the mRNA that would be produced from the double-stranded DNA pictured in Figure 2.1? A) TGTCTCACTGTCTTG B)
A process called DNA transcription makes up the sequence of the amino acids and then a specific protein is produced. Each protein structure has a specific function in it. Changing the structure will then change its function since it rearranges everything in the protein structure. Proteins are there for an essential part of the body, since it helps form body tissues, like muscles, organs and is used within many biological processes as well. For example proteins are used in our body to make things such as enzymes,
1. Write a sentence for each of these mechanisms describing the manner in which the DNA can be transferred from one cell to another. Transformation: During transformation pieces of genetic instructions are released by a bacterium. Another bacterium, picks up the DNA into its own genome. Bacteria taking up foreign DNA is known as transformation. Transformation implies uptake in bacterial, yeast or plant cell DNA while transfection is the term used in reference of mammalian uptake.
Enzymes are homogeneous biological catalyst that work by lowering the activation of a reaction pathway or providing a new pathway with a low activation energy. Enzymes are special biological polymers that contain an active site, which is responsible for binding the substrates, the reactants, and processing them into products. As is true of any catalyst, the active site returns to its original state after the products are released. Many enzymes consist primarily of proteins, some featuring organic or inorganic cofactors in their active sites. However, certain ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules can also be biological catalysts, forming ribozymes.
INTRODUCTION Genome is the sum total of all genetic material of an organism. The genome may be either DNA or RNA. Eukaryotes and prokaryotes always have a DNA genome but viruses may either have a DNA genome or RNA genome. There are two distinct parts in eukaryotic genome, one is the nuclear genome and the other is the organelle genome, which is of two types: mitochondrial and chloroplast genome respectively.
The proteins continually moves between the nucleolus and the nucleoplasm because of the dynamics within the cell. The structure of the nucleolus is divided into three main subcomportaments, which are the fibrillar center (FC), the dense fibrillar component (DFC) and the granular component (GC). In several studies it was possible to discover that the nucleolus contains most of the cell’s genetic material, structured as multiple long linear DNA molecules.
These are formed by the polymerization of tubulins. Each tubulin molecule is a hetero dimer of two closely related and tightly associated subunits called α-tubulin and β-tubulin. Tubulins are highly conserved in all eukaryotes throughout the evolution. Each microtubule is typically composed of thirteen linear protofilaments of alternating α- and β-tubulins arranged in parallel to form a cylindrical structure. The microtubules are polar structure i.e. the beta-tubulin is exposed at the minus end and alpha- tubulin towards the plus end and the polymerization is three times faster at the plus end than that of the minus end in vitro.
Determination of Vitamin C Concentration by Titration Serena Kim Vasantha Susarla McGill University Introduction This experiment is being performed to determine the concentration of Vitamin C in different solutions by performing a redox reaction with potassium iodate. Vitamin C, which is also called ascorbic acid, can be naturally found in citrus fruits and common vegetables. Vitamin C is considered as an antioxidant because it acts as a coenzyme and reducing agent in several different ways.
The Diverse Parts of Macromolecules in Science There are four sorts of macromolecules that I am going to portray: Proteins, starches, lipids and nucleic corrosive. I will likewise depict the capacities and why they are critical in our bodies. Proteins Proteins are polymers of amino acids that are joined head-to-tail in a long chain that is then collapsed into a three-dimensional structure one of a kind to every sort of protein. The covalent linkage between two contiguous amino acids in a protein (or polypeptide) chain is known as a peptide bond.
1. How does DNA encode information? DNA is a double-stranded helix composed of a phosphate backbone and deoxyribose, and encodes information by the sequence of its nucleotide bases, which are composed of adenine, thiamine, guanine and cytosine. DNA undergoes transcription, which produces single-stranded mRNA, which uses uracil in place of thiamine. Next step is translation, in which the RNA becomes a protein, which then can act as structural units or enzymes.
The Solid sequencing platform, produced by Technologies/Applied Biosystems (ABI), performs sequencing by ligation method. Similar like the Roche 454 library preparation, genomic double strand DNA were sheared into small pieces and ligated with two types of adatptors P1 and P2 on two ends. One end with P1 adaptor binds onto the surface of the magnetic bead and emulsion PCR takes place to amplify single nucleotide fragment. Then the oil was washed out and four fluorescent labeled di-bases probes were added into the beads mixture. By matching the 1st and 2nd position of the template by di-base probes, fluorescence was detected and the extra tail with fluorescent probe is cleaved out.
Introduction Gene regulation is the process of turning a gene on or off. Genes are a section of DNA that encodes information. (Freeman, 2014, p.305) In the human body there are tons of cells that each contain different genes. All of the genes cannot be expressed at once so cells must decide which genes to turn on and off.