A number of sources have supported the relevance of the chunking theory in mastering language. For instance, Gupta and MacWhinney (2001) discuss chunking helps understand the development of fluency in the context of second language acquisition. Green (2012) further suggested that the chunking theory is also applicable to learning phonological shapes of worlds in first and second language acquisitions. Chunks are results of neuromotor routines. Learners nurture them through practice, and then process them as single units.
The use of vocabulary items, complicated linguistic forms, naturalness and fluency will be enhanced if students are given time for their preparation (Skehan, 1996; Willis, 1996). This is called strategic planning phase. In this strategic planning, students can decide by themselves what to do in the task, or teachers lead them in accuracy, fluency or complexity focus (Ellis, 2003). though teacher guidance is important in notifying students what to concentrate on during preparation (Skehan, 1996), Willis (1996) claims that students tend to perform the task more eagerly when they plan the task by themselves rather than being guided by the
How people process and store data is essential during the time spent learning. Blueprint - An inner learning structure. New data is contrasted with existing psychological structures. Construction might be consolidated, stretched out or adjusted to suit new data. The information frameworks of psychological structures are effectively developed by learners in view of previous subjective structures on account of learning dynamic digestion and convenience of new data to existing intellectual structures however in the event of inspiring learners to set their own particular objectives and propel themselves to learn.
Not only by exposing them to the language they will speak, read and write the English language correctly, students must learn and understand the meaning of words. Vocabulary words help any English language learner communicate effectively with any other person. According to Wilkins (1972), “Vocabulary is central to English language teaching because, without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas.” On the other hand, many teachers recognize the importance of teaching vocabulary and they must emphasize it daily in their lessons. Among many skills, vocabulary in context is one of the most commonly used. To aid vocabulary in context, the use of a Card-file among other strategies may enrich the student’s experience and understanding of what they speak, read, and
One of the most effective teaching tools to assess and stimulate critical thinking is questioning. Questions are mostly used to generate the recall of previous knowledge, but effective questioning lead to advance student learning and engender discussions. The use of questioning is more effective when the students are actively involved in the learning process. One important technique to realize this is divergent questions. “we relied mostly on divergent questions based on the information from literature which states that these questions encourage critical thinking and reasoning in addition to increased participation” (Cruickshank, 2009,p.372).
Even if genetically we are designed to acquire a language, the communication with people sharing the same language’s characteristics is essential. This interaction’s crucial role would explain the obvious nurture importance in the process of acquiring a language. Many linguists have defended the importance of the environment and experiences in the acquisition of a language. Piaget argued that language is not the direct result of an innate characteristic but a capacity related to cognitive development. There are many social and linguistic factors which determine the development of this process.
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING Introduction Language is the key to the world of communication while term signifies things, sentences are expressions of truth and falsity and relevant to this statement, the proper or the correct usage things mentioned above are use in constructing and correcting grammar. Aside from this thought, a well-constructed sentences is composed of words that creates meaning or gives thought intended for the reader or the listener. This body of words that are purposively will form and use in a particular language is called vocabulary. The Vocabulary is one of the key elements in learning a foreign language and to always cause the students difficulties. David Wilkins once quoted that the importance of learning vocabulary that says: “without grammar, very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed”.