Regarding the importance of vocabulary in communication, Rubin and Thompson (1994) maintain that one cannot speak, understand, read or write a foreign language without knowing a lot of words. When learners possess a good command of words, they know how to utilize them appropriately in a foreign language. Della and Hocking (1992) emphasize the importance of vocabulary in communication, stating that it needs a good knowledge of vocabulary to understand and convey their meaning but just a little grammar. Also, good knowledge of vocabulary provides learners with enough confidence and success in communication. It has been suggested that teaching vocabulary should not only consist of teaching specific words but also aim at equipping learners with strategies necessary to expand their vocabulary knowledge (Nunan, 2010; Willis, 2012).
Thus, the ability in speaking skill is a crucial and important part of second language learning and teaching process. The mastery of speaking skill in the English language is a priority for many second language or foreign language students. Even though periods of focusing on language form and enhance vocabulary are important in English language learning, but developing the students’ ability to really communicate with English class are the main goal of an English language teaching. At the end of the study, the students should be able to communicate effectively in English for study, work, and leisure outside the classroom. Therefore, it is essential that English teachers pay great attention in teaching speaking to the students.
One of the first steps of learning English is learning vocabulary. A person’s vocabulary size is the set of words they know. Having a large vocabulary size is a useful tool for speaking, listening, reading, and writing. A great challenge second language learners’ face is acquiring extensive vocabulary knowledge. There are many different aspects to knowing a word.
Richard (2002) stated that vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basic for how well learners speak, listen, read, and write. Vocabulary cannot be separated from the language because it itself is the important component of the language. Furthermore, Neuman & Dwyer (2009) defined vocabulary as “words we must know to communicate effectively, words in speaking (expressive vocabulary) and words in listening (receptive vocabulary). Vocabulary works as the smallest unit of speech in an individual’s communicates or interacting process. According to Diamond & Gutlohn (2006), vocabulary is the knowledge of words and their meanings.
Learners of English have to deal with unfamiliar vocabulary during their language acquisition. Traditionally, vocabulary has not been a particular subject for students to learn, but has been taught within lessons of speaking, lstening, reading, and writing. Vocabulary knowledge involves more than knowing word definitions and knowing how to find the meanings of unknown words and phrases, interpret literal vs. non-literal language and understand shades of word meaning. It also creates better reading comprehension and the ability to engage, produce and talk about texts. Students who know more words and can also use them in the right context have a significant advantage in school and can continue using that skill to their advantage in college and career.
Learning vocabulary in the earlier stages is more essential than grammar. Without vocabulary one would not be able to use functions and structures for efficient communication. This means that without vocabulary knowledge one can communicate nothing but without knowing grammar one can communicate a little (Nunan 1991). Some recent researches have demonstrated that the responses to the questions of how to learn vocabulary learns best seem to include using usual tools such as word lists, flashcards, or monolingual dictionaries. Strangely enough, asking students to write their own sentences with newly learned words or structures five or ten times is not rare, even though the “old fashioned learning model “ rote learning
The first decade of the twenty-first century was marked by a renewed interest in and support of students’ own languages (Cook, Translation 37). This has been made possible by the changes that had taken place in the academic and political climate which surrounds language teaching and learning (Hall and Cook 278). Many theorists, linguists, and teachers agree on the importance of using translation in foreign language classes. Schaffner (1998) claims that the translation and related exercises could be beneficial to foreign language learning in the following ways: 1. To improve verbal agility.
The four language skills are listening, reading, writing and speaking. I will explain what each one means to language skills, and give examples. The lesson that I will use for this essay comes from OM2C. At this level, students have 10 hours of teaching time. The lesson focuses on grammar and understanding modals of offer with the verbs can/could/with.
Each has its own function. In some areas there is one-to-one correspondence between speech and writing but in a number of areas there is no neat correspondence between units of speech and writing. As far as grammar is concerned, these two areas play an important role in English language teaching. Knowing grammar rules particularly the above said tenses, idioms and phrases and vocabulary helps to get mastery over speech and writing English language. Many students equate being able to speak a language as knowing the language and therefore view learning the language as learning how to speak the language, or as Nunan (1991) wrote, "success is measured in terms of the ability to carry out a conversation in the (target) language."
Thus, the ability in speaking skill is a crucial and important part of second language learning and teaching process. The mastery of speaking skill in the English language is a priority for many second language or foreign language students. Even though periods of focusing on language form and enhance vocabulary are important in English language learning, but developing the students’ ability to really communicate with English in the classroom are the main goal of an English language teaching. At the end of the study, the students should be able to communicate effectively in English for study, work, and leisure outside the classroom. Therefore, it is essential that English teachers pay great attention in teaching speaking to the students.