In any written piece, tone plays a major role and Voltaire uses this tool to portray his opinion towards those who are radically optimistic,and to the idea of optimism by creating a dual attitude system. Through this system, he proves his point by making the reader to see from his point of view. Through the names of his main characters; Candide and Pangloss, Voltaire mocks the audience as well as anyone who is radically optimistic. Pangloss’s name is greek for “all tongue” while Candide means “naive and childlike honesty.” With these definitions in mind, readers can infer that Pangloss’s teaching really had no actual meaning and that ignorant Candide was mislead by his teacher’s philosophy.
Candide is a satirical novella written by the controversial French writer, Voltaire. It was written by the philosophe in 1759 to comment on issues in France. The main character, innocent Candide travels all over the world to look for his lover, Cunegonde and comes in contact with various societies and ideas. He experiences and learns about different philosophies and perspectives from the people he meets and finally learns to think for himself. At the end of his adventures, he and his friends live on farm in Turkey where they develop a small society with each individual having an important job and purpose for the community.
In Voltaire’s book, Candide, many characters are faced with challenges that test their decisions in tough situations. Candide is a prime example of the way experiences impacts his thinking and reaction in situations. His head is all wrapped up in Pangloss’s philosophical idea of, “All is for the best”, which leads Candide to believe many things are happening for a reason. Many people change over time due to experiences they encounter in life. As Candide is on his adventure he is enlightened by the world around him.
The protagonist of Voltaire’s satirical piece, Candide, is notorious for his naivety and innocence seen throughout the course of his travels. As he experiences both, the good and the evil, he undergoes changes as a dynamic character. Candide’s gullibility in the beginning of the story is evident when he is coerced into the Bulgarian army and faces a tough decision: whether to be striked thirty-six times by the regiment or to be killed with poisonous lead. His initial response is that “human will is free” and that he shall choose neither one or the other (Voltaire 5). It is worth remembering that the idea of “free will” derived from Master Pangloss’ teachings, who indoctrinated his beliefs into Candide.
The last lines of the novella, Candide, a satirical piece, are “but let us cultivate our garden” (Voltaire, 221). Written by Voltaire, who was a French philosopher during the Enlightenment, he mocks and ridicules Leibniz’s idea of philosophical optimism. By “our garden”, Voltaire really means ourselves. The cultivation of ourselves is to learn from the world and it’s mistakes, and then create a path that will call for a desired and fine life. Many examples of this are seen throughout the short story.
One key facet of living in the world today is the ability for people to have free will over their own lives. In Voltaire’s story “Candide,” it is clear to observe that although Candide is free to form his own decisions, he allows himself to be strongly determined by his surroundings as well as everyone who he encounters. This story proposes that Candide is trying to find a balance between submitting completely to the speculations and actions of others while also taking control of his life through blind faith. Throughout the story, Candide encounters frequent hardships along his voyage to prosperity. These obstacles include, but are not limited to becoming a bulwark, being beaten and forced to watch his beloved Pangloss having been hanged, leaving such an amazing place as Eldorado, being lied to and tricked out of diamonds by the abb`e, killing Cunegonde’s two lovers, almost being boiled alive for killing the monkey lovers, and being persuaded to be promiscuous on Cunegonde.
In Voltaire’s tale, Candide travels across the known world witnessing the horrific brutalities that humans commit against one another in the name of religion, power, or simple greed having seen and experienced this violence, which puts into doubt Candide’s doubts his belief that live is good and has a purpose--------. Candide decides that he and his friends must cultivate their gardens. Throughout his writings Cadide repeats his contention that "we must cultivate our gardens" (149). This issue of excessive optimism is of particular importance when it comes to creativity where a sense of possibility is essential----------
Voltaire’s Candide, an 18th century satirical novella, details the tale of a young man, named Candide, after his expulsion from the castle he lived in. Candide suffers many misfortunes during his resulting travels and encounters several conflicting perspectives on how to interpret human nature and the world around us. Candide’s boredom with the life around him becomes a constant factor throughout the text and appears prominently when Candide resides in the castle, when he arrives at El Dorado, and when he decides to settle on the farm. Voltaire uses these situations to depict boredom’s detrimental effects and to suggest that boredom leads to all tragedy.
Satire is defined by the usage of various literary devices, such as irony, puns, and backwards logic, to criticize and poke fun at contemporary issues. Satire is commonly used to make a statement about society from the authors’ point of view. Two classical satirical works are Oscar Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest and Voltaire’s Candide. Wilde was an author who used backwards logic and frivolity extensively to attack his targets, while Voltaire was a philosopher who used sarcasm and brutal imagery against his.
This paper will discuss the use of optimism in Candide by Voltaire and Zaabalawi by Naguib Mahfouz. We will look at downside to optimism as portrayed in both stories; wherein, morality becomes questionable, a lack of critical thinking breeds naivety, and inner peace is lost. A sense of purpose and satisfaction are achieved once over analyzation ceases to dominate the mind; allowing one to simply live life without foreseeing or arranging the outcome. In Candide, Voltaire mocks the philosophy “the best of all possible worlds” to pinpoint the shortcomings of this optimistic theory which says everything is arranged for the best.