Many Enlightenment writers and thinkers had backgrounds in the sciences and associated scientific advancement with the overthrow of religion and traditional authority in favor of the development of free speech and thought. Science during the Enlightenment greatly valued rational thoughts and was embedded with the Enlightenment ideal of advancement and progress. Science during the Enlightenment established the foundations of modern chemistry. The influence of science also affected the literature during the Enlightenment. Many Enlightenment thinkers and philosophers tried to bring reforms to governments during the 1600s and 1700s.
Many of his thoughts and principles were studied and adopted by the founders of the United States and are evident in documents, just like the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. Locke emphasized the freedom of humans, the equality of all before God, regulation and authorities through consent of the governed, and he justified the overthrow of presidency when it fails the people. Jean-Jacques Rousseau was another prominent thinker from the Enlightenment era. Rousseau differed with Locke about the position of the individual in relation to the country, with Rousseau emphasizing the importance of the ruled being worried in
Later being added to his works, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, becoming the “Father of Liberalism”. Locke’s ideas from the Two Treatises of Government and An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, were based upon the natural rights where power comes from the people. Both of his pieces contributed to revolutions, most importantly the American Revolution as power from monarchies was removed and democracies were created. Allowed for limited government power and all obligations were to the citizens. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding basis was on how the knowledge existence of God, certain moral truths, and laws of logic or mathematics pertained to the natural rights of
The Enlightenment ideas influenced the American Revolution, French Revolution and Latin American wars for independence. They were affected by gaining liberty, equality, fraternity and many more ideas. All of these ideas are very important and truly affected them. The American Revolution was heavily affected by Enlightenment ideas. First, Enlightenment idea found in the American Revolution is Natural Rights.
The ideas of Enlightenment thinkers like John Locke and Montesquieu helped create the basis for the Declaration of Independence, the American Revolution, and the creation of the government of the United States of America. John Locke’s philosophy of natural rights, like life, liberty, and property belonging to everyone, and Montesquieu’s philosophy of separation of powers, both influenced the rise of a state with no king when they declared their independence from the British in 1776, which was revolutionary and a radical idea since most countries were ruled by some kind of a monarchy during the early modern era. These philosophies were supported by human reason, unlike previous eras where ideals had been supported by religion, which is why they were thought to be so innovative and impressive. The American Revolution, fueled by Enlightenment ideals, later became an incentive for the French Revolution among other revolutionary movements challenging oppressive, widely accepted beliefs of
The Enlightenment was a period that was during the 17th and 18th century that highlighted the reason and the individual person rather than tradition. The Enlightenment occurred because after the French Revolution the people wanted to advocate reason, and wanted a way to establish a system of ethics, government, and religion. The Enlightenment took place in Europe. It began with the publication of Francis Bacon’s “Novum Organum” and ended with Immanuel Kant’s “Critique of Pure Reason”. The ideas influenced the United States by determining the almost every part of the colonial United States.
The 18th century eventually became known as the age of enlightenment, it was a period that marked a lot of social change. Great thinkers like Voltaire and Jean-Jackqes Rousseau wrote about the importance of freedom and human rights. With such ideas, these famous philosophers influenced others and made them feel the need to be free from oppressive or tyrannical rule of absolute monarchs and have the ability to live independent from such forces. Also, both areas suffered social and economic hardships which led to the realization that something must be done to destroy the hierarchy in order to put power back into the hands of the people. While there are several similarities in these revolutions, there are also a few key
The eighteenth century Enlightenment proved to be a movement of the intellectuals who dared to prove all the aspects in life scientifically. These individuals were greatly affected by the scientific revolution. They were, in addition, advocating the appliance of the scientific methodology to the understanding of life. Throughout the age of enlightenment, science became popular and there were many philosophers like John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Adam Smith, Montesquieu, etc who applied the natural laws to the social life. These people and their writings had a huge impact on the French Revolution.
Both Thomas Hobbes and John Locke had different ideas about the government and human nature. When Hobbes was in the English Civil War he was convinced that humans are naturally selfish and wicked people, and without government there would be no order in the world, and there would be in chaos. Hobbs thought that the ruler need a total power to keep the people under control, which would be an absolute monarchy. John Locke on the other hand, had a different opinion, it was a more positive view on human nature. Locke thought the people can learn from their mistakes and improve themselves.
The development of science is one of the most significant achievements of the Enlightenment era, as it shaped both socio-economic and political spheres of life. In this paper, I would like to highlight the importance of the institutionalization of science as one of the most significant factors that affected intellectual, social and political aspects of the history of the Enlightenment era. The beginning of the Enlightenment era in Europe coincided with revolutions, struggles, wars and instability generated by the destruction of empires, church, corporate and feudal relations. At the same time, new capitalist and liberal relations started to form. Rapid emasculation of social ideas and religious leaders, along with technical progress led to the necessity for new social and political order.