Pollan writes, “Yet perhaps the gravest threat now to local food economies is, of all things, the government’s own well-intentioned efforts to clean up the industrial food supply” (Pollan 450). This statement basically means that as the government spends more money in an attempt to improve the overall cleanliness of industrial farms the local farms are forced to spend money they do not have. Local farming economies must maintain their farms as closely as they can to the government’s standards. This means they must spend large amounts of money improving their facilities. Local markets typically bring in less money than the average store or supermarket.
Urbanization is seen as an effect of the current globalization phenomenon, as people, through their view of urban centers as a rich source of employment and access to other economic activities, coupled with the fact that social amenities are available in urban areas as opposed to rural areas, continue to migrate to urban areas to access this facilities. Urbanization is defined as the continued proportional increase of an entire population which live in urban areas and the surrounding sub-urban areas. It is a function of population increase, which can occur through natural growth within the existing population and rural-urban or urban-urban migration. (Owuor,2012).Urbanization is greatly linked to industrialization which took place in the mid 18th century in parts of Europe and which many countries continue to experience. As industries continued to grow, there was emergence of towns due to concentration of labor in the industrial areas and the emerging needs for housing and other social amenities for the factory
Commodities, according to Polanyi, are objects that are "produced for sale on the market… between buyers and sellers" (Polanyi, 72). With that being said, land, labour and money may be essential elements of an industry, but they are not seen as commodities. As the transition towards a market society occurred, these fundamentals have increasingly become the main elements of production and are used in order to have a greater overall performance in the market. However, due to the expansion of the market society and the increasing rate of land, labor and money, many changes have occurred from previous organizations. In previous years, social organizations were run under feudal order, and it was necessary for industries to be formed by part of the social organization itself (Polanyi, 69).
In addition, the number of agriculture present in developing country is limited. With higher agriculture growth, this will improve the income of the population which then improve the affordability of the lower income family in purchasing food. It will also results in economic growth of the country hence improving the food access. The physical access and availability of food can be affected by the lack of infrastructure such as inaccessible road in developing country which hinders the food from reaching the country. Food wastage also affects the availability of food in a country.
As before, as the population increases with immigration, the labor supply would also increase, but the increased population would also lead to increased consumer spending and demand (i.e. money flowing into the US economy). When this new shift is taken into consideration, the labor demand would need to also increase to accommodate the new consumer demand. Thus, the change to wage rates would be subject how much labor supply and labor demand shift; a larger shift in supply over demand leading to decreased wage rates and vice-versa. Consequently, the resulting outcomes from immigration could be positive, negative, or neutral towards economic factors.
As more goods were mass produced they required more transportation to sell them and, vice versa, as transportation became cheaper and more common companies were further motivated to increase production. The sudden wave of factories led to an increase in urbanization in which people lived where the jobs were. Without coal to feed these massive factory chains people most likely would have continued to live in small towns and communities rather than clump together for labor purposes. The popularity of coal also marks the dawn of the fossil-fuel era. While it may be a good source of profit and energy, the environment was left to pick up the slack.
All around the world, there is a rapid increase in urbanization which primarily results in the physical growth of urban areas. Therefore cities are growing quicker and as a result, they are changing economically, spatially and socially. Properties within cities are becoming increasingly more expensive with an escalation in demand and therefore older buildings are being revamped as new economic groups enter the neighbourhood. Gentrification is the process whereby younger, middle and upper-income households migrate into the centrally located urban neighbourhoods, such as Woodstock in Cape Town, and the accompanying upgrading of rundown properties that previously had filtered down to lower-income tenants (Levy, D; 1984). It is also linked to the consequent changes in the neighbourhood’s character and culture which can result in the effects and benefits of gentrification not being evenly shared and distributed.
In reality, clearly gentrification influences reliably the urban development. In any case, impacts of gentrification can be very disputable. From one viewpoint, gentrification stimulates the financial development of communities, where representatives of the middle class move to. Be that as it may, monetary advantages might be short-run, though, in a long-run point of view, gentrification can prompt the enlarging hole between the rich and the poor in urban areas. The latter issue will prompt the deterioration of the social dependability inside urban areas.
Supply side constraints: Lack of availability of Urban Land Increasing population density gives a huge demand in urban areas for land in India 4. The shortage has now increased more by poor municipal regulations. As a result, the land prices are now much more than intrinsic levels which support the mass development of real estate 4. RISING THRESHOLD COSTS OF CONSTRUCTION The prices of luxury residential projects are guided by land costs construction which have a significant share of affordable housing. This is because of the fact land prices fall varies depending from city to city, and costs of construction follow a trend from mid income to low income housing