On the other hand acoustic phonetics describes vowels and consonants in terms of their acoustic parameters such as frequency composition, relative intensities and changes in duration. Vowels are voiced and relatively high in intensity than consonants. Vowels are produced with relatively open vocal tract with prominent resonance. The first two formant frequencies (F1 & F2) are essential for the discrimination of vowels. Vowels are more accessible to auditory analysis as they are longer in duration and may hold longer duration in the auditory memory  (Stevens,
Subglottic pressure:23 The force of the expiratory blast of air, as well as determining the volume of sound, also influences slightly the pitch. Increase in air pressure in associated with increase in pitch, when it is increased in volume. It has been suggested that in the production of very high notes the false cords come into contact with the upper surface of vocal cords and this raise the frequency of their vibrations. Theories of mechanism of vocal fold vibration The vocal fold vibration is essential to voice production was demonstrated in the first canine vocal fold experiment performed by Ferrein in 1974. Subsequently, there have been a number of hypothesis about how vocal fold vibration is controlled.24 Neurochronaxic
The vibrations traveled from his piano to his jawbone. Beethoven heard his music through vibrations. (Heather, Simon(2013) “The Science of Sound) Intensity is the amount of energy of a vibration, and is measured in decibels (dB). A zero decibel sound, like leaves rustling in the wind, can barely be heard by an adult. However, a 120 dB sound, like a jet engine, is noticed as very loud and painful for the human ear.
When sound is generated at the level of vocal fold, it is obviously transmitted through air and these cartilages, muscles and bone to reach the inner ear. Travelling through this structure provides more bass energy as mentioned earlier or might damp high frequencies which ultimately result in low pitch perception of our own voice. Similar kind of effect is seen during recording of an audio sample, known as “Proximity Effect”. Proximity effect is a change in the frequency response of a microphone, having a directional pickup pattern, which produces an emphasis on lower frequencies. It is caused by the use of ports to create directional polar pickup patterns.Depending on the microphone design, proximity effect may result in a boost of up to 16 dB or more, depending on the size of the microphone's diaphragm and the distance of the source.
The speaker recognition process relies on features influenced by both the physical structure of an individual’s vocal tract and the behavioral characteristics of the individual.  A popular choice for remote authentication due to the availability of devices for collecting speech samples and its ease of integration, speaker recognition is different from some other biometric methods in that speech samples are captured dynamically or over a period of time, such as a few seconds. Analysis occurs on a model in which changes over time are monitored, which is similar to other behavioural biometrics such as dynamic signature, gait, and keystroke recognition. The unique patterns of an individual’s voice is then produced by the vocal tract. The vocal tract consists of the laryngeal pharynx, oral pharynx, oral cavity, nasal pharynx, and the nasal cavity.
Pulsatile tinnitus suggests a vascular neoplasm, vascular anamoly, or vascular malformation (Weissmann et all, 1999). There is also a less common perception of Tinnitus, it is known as Musical tinnitus. This is a form of tinnitus where music is heard instead of the more common ringing type of sound, or a mixture of both. There may be no music being played near the person but they still hear music inside their head. Although not always troublesome in itself, musical hallucination can be a marker of underlying pathology in the ear or brain, or indicate obsessive-compulsive traits or social isolation, and is likely to be clinically underreported (T.E.
Timbre is the sound quality which differentiates musical notes of identical pitch, loudness and duration played by different instruments. Instruments have their own acoustic properties which generate the differences in listeners’ perceived timbres, and the key to it is the spectral and temporal features of the sound. In the aspect of spectra, most instruments generate harmonic resonances in which they produce energy at multiple numbers of fundamental frequency. These harmonic resonances are very similar to the speech produced by the vibration of vocal chords. Just like the varied vowels, the differed energy patterns across different harmonics determine distinct instrument properties.
Throughout the late 1960s and the 1970s, scholars raised several questions with regard to the pronunciation’s role in the curriculum of English as a second or foreign language. According to Morley (1991), pronunciation programs until the late 1960s and the early 1970s were “viewed as meaningless non-communicative drill-and-exercise gambits” (p. 45). It is believed that the factors affecting second language pronunciation are primarily variables that cannot be affected by formal rules and focused practice (Krashen, 1982). Likewise, other scholars such as Purcell and Suter (1980) argued that the factors (e.g., motivation, aptitude for oral mimicry, native language, and the interaction with native speakers), which chiefly influence the second language phonology’s acquisition “seem to be
Vowel-Harmony Vowel harmony is a process in which the vowels of two successive syllables in a word become similar in certain ways. It roughly means that the vowels must agree in being either front or back. Both front and back vowels cannot occur in the same word, rather vowels occurring in two syllables share some common qualities in a word. In other words the relation between them is one of degree of openness or closeness of articulation. In other words this is coupled with lip rounding or lack of lip rounding for both the syllables.
Introduction Our voice forms an important part of our everyday lives. However, it is when the voice is used as a part of one’s profession, that it becomes indispensable. Teaching is one such profession (Buekers, Bierens, Kingma & Marres, 1995; Simberg, Sala & Ronnemaa, 2004). Teachers regularly face vocal abuse at work (Smith et al., 1998), the effects of which manifest themselves in ways more than speaking on the job (Sovani & Mukundan 2010). In spite of this, very little is currently being done in India to address voice problems of teachers (Sovani & Mukundan, 2010).