Expectancy can be influenced by managers by selecting individuals with particular skills and abilities, providing training, and providing support to achieve a particular level of performance (Ugah, 2008). The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectancy that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the value or attractiveness of that outcome to the person (Lawler,
There is an urgent need for feedback as to achievement and progress, and the need for a sense of accomplishment. People with high demand for achieving tend to succeed, and thus tend to avoid both low-risk and high-risk situations. Achievers avoid low-risk situations because the easily
The two groups of Utilitarians also help to lay out this case. One side of utilitarians focus on what will produce the best outcome, no matter what course of action is taken. Or the rule side of Utilitarians where they will do what is right for the good of
According this approach, the core component of human behaviour is the individual’s intention to perform a given activity. Intention is supposed to reflect the individual’s levels of motivation whereas it reveals how much he/she will try in order to achieve his/her goal. Three independent critical factors determine individual’s intention towards behaviour. The first is the individual’s attitude toward the behaviour which refers to positive or negative evaluations of the behaviour per se. The second determinant is named subjective norm which has to do with possible social pressure which is exerted on the individual to engage or not to engage in the behaviour; and the third is individual’s perceived behavioural control which denotes to the extent to which the person believes that he/she has the ability to control the behaviour under question.
Self-efficacy is the belief of one’s capacity to succeed, stemming from the Latin efficere meaning ‘work out’ or ‘accomplish.’ Albert Bandura states that this self construct has a great effect on the way an individual approaches a goal, especially in terms of coping, making it an important idea (Yancey, 2014). Finally, self-concept, also known as self-identity, are the ideas and beliefs one has about oneself and which one uses when assessing what behaviors to exhibit rated on the consistency with the abstract (Osborne, 2014). All of these concepts are important to the well-being of an individual, showing to have a strong correlation with psychological health and making a focus on the concepts
It states that the good consequences for the individual has greater ability as compared with the consequences placed upon others. In addition, actions could be considered as ethical for the individual whoever is taking the action which is benefited, while any advantage or disadvantage to the well-being of others is a secondary effect and not as important as the consequences for the individual. The similarity between act utilitarianism and ethical egoism are both contained large number of sub-theories within each branch which are the value placed between the individual and others. Both ethical egoism and act utilitarianism are allowing an individual to put himself or herself first in determining the right action to take in a particular situation whether the particular action is right or wrong. This is different from pure selflessness which states that only working for the benefit of others is morally valuable.
The purpose of actionillitarianism is to choose the actions that lead to the best consequences, and then bring the best possible happiness. Actions that meet these requirements are interpreted as correct in actionillitarianism, and this is precisely what the action-utilitarist doctrine supports. Firstly, it is essential to understand the concept of happiness, and according to Smart, the idea of happiness satisfies and pleases. He emphasizes that a person must be satisfied with someone else 's state of mind, and then enjoy the thought of this condition. Nevertheless, it can be difficult to determine the term, as the definition of happiness varies for any person.
Moreover, not every aspect of a seemingly unfair term in a consumer contract can be regarded as dishonest manipulation on the part of the offeror of the goods or service. There are several advantages of having some knowledge of any pending transaction. Firstly, an informed will be better placed to discover the possible loopholes in a contract that may impose some biased obligation on the consumer. Secondly, being informed as a consumer is that the purchaser of any service will be able to high quality investments in terms of financial resources and time. This can be achieved through the consideration of available options concerning quality, prices, or warranties.
By changing product strategy, it needs to increase prices or lessen the range of products offered whereas, if company chooses to change strategic capabilities, it will need to have continuous improvement of value chain or improve product design. Sadly, adapting competitive pressure is simpler than changing strategic capability. An important lesson to be learnt from continuous process improvement is that changing product strategy competitive pressure is a short-term solution. This is because company has the decision to give up markets or increase prices so it may benefit in the short-run, but, majority of a company’s strength lies in a superior ability to contribute value to customers which is due to company’s consistency in improving strategic capabilities. Therefore, increasing strategic capabilities through continuous improvements is through activities that will decrease or eliminate batch-level activities, lessen batch-sizes and reducing non-functional differences between products.