A study done by William R. Doyle, an assistant professor of higher education at Vanderbilt University claims, that the number of women in the workforce affects the size of the wage gap. He concludes that as the number of women in the workforce rose, therefore, the gap decreased due to more women comprising a part of the economy. Another reason that the gender wage gap got smaller over time was due to congress enacting the Equal Pay Act. This is because throughout history the government, although unsuccessfully, have tried to get rid of or lessen the gender pay gap. According to Paul Weiler a professor of law at Harvard Law school, during president Kennedy’s time in office Kennedy encountered problems with the gender pay gap and imposed a ban on it he called the Equal Pay act of 1963.
Genders equal pay should be fixed because even though the gender each work the same hours,jobs, and education level the male will still receive more pay. In the history of gender wage gaps the women always had less pay than the men in the work forces. The
In the article, “Facilitating Dissertation Completion and Success Among Doctoral Students in Social Work” by Janet Liecty, Minili Liao, and Christine Schull, it described several skills and talents needed as a way to excel in social work. On page 483 of the article, it reiterates the exact same topic of having knowledge mentor for the reason that as humans we need reassurance and praise especially from someone experienced. A few pages later, it describes key elements: confidence, responsibility, and patience as a necessity to accomplish success. When helping individuals with trust issues and family troubles, it takes technique and time to get them to gain your trust and speak about issues. If a social worker goes to a client unprepared and doubtful, it increases the chance of unsuccessful
Various studies have been conducted to determine the specific external factors that lead to the decline or subsequent incline of motivation. One such study done by Bandura cited by Merrit & Buboltz (2015) identified nine individual factors in a scale determining the value of self efficacy in an individual the nine separate factors in Bandura’s report were as follows “ enlisting social resources, academic achievement, self-regulated learning, leisure-time skill and extracurricular activities, Self- regulatory efficacy to resist peer pressure, meet others expectations, social self-efficacy, self-assertive efficacy, enlisting parental and community support”. Amanda’s parents may not try to incentivize Amanda’s goals through monetary means as they may have done in the past, Amanda’s possible dependence on these incentives at home as well as at school from teachers in the form of sweets and privileges (Covington 2000) to fuel the drive she had to succeed may be tampering with the efficiency and motivation that Amanda needs this year. There is also a possibility that Amanda’s environmental alteration from school to university may have served as a contributor to her displeasing
Henning writes “In simple terms, the expectancy-value theory suggests that students assess the success or failure of their learning based on how consistent this is with their expectation” (Henning 17). This means that if a student meets or exceeds their own expectations then they will define what they did as a success, but if a student does not meet their expectations then they will define what they did as a failure. Since, Nieman was not even a core member of his first band, it was very unlikely that Fletcher would choose him, meaning that Nieman had low expectations. However, since Nieman is chosen by Fletcher, he far exceeds his expectations and sees himself as being very successful. Henning also writes about how this expectancy-value theory relates to motivation.
However, most of these findings have been confined to western cultures. A recent study by Zhang, Zhou, Zhang and Chen (2012) aimed to examine the relationship between conscientiousness and job performance amongst workers in China. The researchers hypothesised that, firstly, overall job performance and conscientiousness will have a non-linear relationship, and secondly, that conscientiousness will also possess a non-linear relationship with specific task performance, adaptive performance, and contextual
Equal Pay for Equal Work Over many years, women have been gradually given more rights such as owning property and voting, but one thing that has remained the same is that the females are not getting paid as much as men. It is important to close this pay gap because women are getting about 80% of what men are getting paid for the same work. Studies are also showing that women are charged more or have to spend more money than men. Equal pay is becoming more important as the minorities increase in the nation because the economy will suffer if a huge percentage of its workforce is getting paid 50-60 cents on the dollar. As more women are taking up the work force, it is important to pay them as much as the working men.
Even though there is a law that prohibits discrimination and inequality, there are businesses that discriminate against women with wage disparity. Women are paid only eighty percent of what men are paid despite the fact that both genders have the same full-time jobs. To attain true equality between genders, the government of the United States should pass a new law that requires constant inspection on wage disparity in all businesses.
1.2.3 Theoretical Perspective 188.8.131.52 Self-efficacy Theory. Bandura (1977) theorized that self-efficacy influence choice of activities, effort, persistence, and achievement. Compared with that person who has doubt on their abilities those with high self-efficacy for completing a task participate more work harder, readily, persist longer when they face difficulties, and achieve at a higher level. People information to appraise self-efficacy from their performances, vicarious experiences, physiological reactions and forms of persuasion. Person performances offer reliable guides for assessing self-efficacy.
The theory indicates that a person’s motivation emanates from trusting, that they will acquire what they wish in the form of a reward. Expectancy theory of motivation has three main elements. They are expectancy, instrumentality and valence. These elements interact to establish “Motivation Force” (Redmond, 2016). Expectancy can be expressed as the trust that’s superior or greater efforts will harvest better performance.