As children will be encouraged to discover information themselves schemes will be used to enable to form a mental representation of the object or action of the information processed (Miller 2010). Thus, the children adapt and adjusts to the new information and experiences to their constantly changing environment. The two processes which will assists teachers to benefit children’s understanding of new information or experiences is assimilation and accommodation. ‘According to Piaget (1958), assimilation and accommodation require an active
1. Children should be challenged, with appropriate age related characteristics and knowledge to promote learning thru experiences. When teachers are knowledgeable about how children should learn and what age they should learn it they can promote learning development. “With this knowledge , teachers can make preliminary
This assignment’s compilation serves the purpose of critically discussing the importance of primary school educators’ ability to understand theories of child development and their use within Intermediate phase education. Children perceive information in altered manners at particular stages of their development; this will be discussed further in this essay. Theories include Behaviourism, Constructivism and Cognitivism. It is imperative for educators to be aware of the theories that are applicable to the children they interact with, thus allowing them to provide information and activities for the learners in numerous manners to aid their development. The Behaviourists believed that our behaviour is shaped by the environment.
It is crucial to understand Piaget’s theory of learning; he believes that this is as a dynamic development as information is formed from the individuals themselves. Kamii (1974) emphasizes on the idea argued by Piaget which is that intellectual development is that children must be allowed to do their own learning (Halpenny and Pettersen, 2014, p. 152). To substantiate, Anne Marie Halpenny and Jan Pettersen (2014, p. 153) supports this statement in how educators can acquire and assimilate the concepts in educator’s pedagogy by claiming, that ‘active learning’ within allowing children to explore the environment is is the greatest approach for children to acquire knowledge. This suggest, that the responsibility of educators is to construct certain methodologies within their pedagogy to be able to adapt and develop aspects of Piaget’s theory to offer a learning situation where children are offered to cogitate and consequent to having children have the ability to develop as themselves. In addition to this, using Piaget’s theory in the approach of understanding that primary children from year 3 to year 6 would be distinguished as concrete operational individuals.
According to Vygotsky, for the curriculum to be developmentally appropriate, the teacher must plan activities that encompass not only what children are capable of doing on their own but what they can learn with the help of others (Karpov & Haywood, 1998). Vygotsky’s theory does not mean that anything can be taught to any child. Only instruction and activities that fall within the zone promote development. For example, if a child cannot identify the sounds in a word even after many prompts, the child may not benefit immediately from instruction in this skill. Teachers can use information of both levels of Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development in organizing classroom activities such as first instruction can be planned to provide practice in
According to Piaget, “learning is a process of schematic change, or schema building” (p. 42). Schema building occurs through different processes: assimilation and accommodation, equilibrium (or adaptation) through action and exploration through using objects as tools for discovery, and using language as an object of knowledge, which children act upon. Piaget also said that children learn through peer collaboration, they overcome their initial egocentrism through interaction with other children. Both Piaget and Vygotsky theorized that children “construct knowledge through active and thoughtful engagement with their worlds” (p. 48) and then internalize their social experiences. Vygotsky developed the concept of “zone of proximal development” which is “an area in which children experience a challenge as they pursue a task, but do not become frustrated, and is activated through social collaboration or children’s play” (p. 49).
Similarities and differences between Piaget and Vygotsky’s theories The similarities between the theories of Piaget and Vygotskyare that: • Cognitive development requires both physical and social stimulation. • Children need to be achieve and experiment in order to develop thinking. • Challenge with support will keep students engaged but not fearful. The differences of Piaget’ theory and Vygotsky are as follows: Table 2: Table showing the differences of Piaget 's and Vygotsky 's theory Piaget’s theory v.s Vygotsky’s theory: • Solitary • There are strict stages and are aged based. • Children acquired knowledge through their own explorations.
I possess a strong desire to develop some structure in social reform concerning the education system and I postulate that meeting children’s needs take precedence over anything else. Pupils are able to be creative, have compassion for others, and establish likeable personality characteristics, so I am concerned with helping children become better learners as well as admirable people. Children imperatively learn with and from one another in a caring community that is rooted in moral and ethical character as well as academic learning. My school’s curriculum tends to be organized and coordinated around problems, projects, and questions. My teaching philosophy unifies the idea that learning is a matter of constructing ideas, practicing skills, observing morally ethical behaviors, and discovering leadership, furthermore, I invariably ask the questions “Is cooperation emphasized throughout my school?
This is then followed by the connections between the key concepts and the cognitive development of children which will an educator’s developing pedagogy. Finally, an outline of the strengths and outlines of Piaget 's theory. The significant Piaget’s key concepts to understand children’s learning and development: Jean Piaget formulated a model which determined a way of how a human’s mind gathers and organises information. Bormanaki and Khoshhal (2017 pg997) state "according to Piaget 's research; human beings have two basic tendencies of thinking." The first tendency is an organisation which is “ongoing process of arranging information and experience into mental systems or categories” (Woolfolk, Margetts 2016 pg81).
Dewey’s tenet on individualism is that of a learner-centered approach which the writer thinks would afford the learner to be actively involved in their education. Attention is placed on the child and not the teacher. Learner-centered learning suggests students engage actively as doers in education settings. These learners should be empowered to decide on what, when, where, and how to learn. Subsequently, “Learner-centered teachers teach students how to think, solve problems, evaluate evidence, analyze arguments, generate hypotheses—all those learning skills is essential in mastering material in the discipline”.