Taq four. Psychoanalytic theory(Freud) Psychosocial development theory Learning theory( Harlow and Harlow 1969) Erikson Kohlberg What does the theorist mean by the term social development? Freud argued human behaviuor was the result of the interaction of the three component parts of the mind the id, ego and superego based on his patients who came to him regarding their symptoms and to describe exactly what was in their mind (Boundless, 2014). Erikson believed personality develops in a series of stages with impact of social experiences and conflict across the whole life span through his research with his wife at experimental school for American students. (Cherry, 2014).
Lev Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory stems from the idea that our cognitive development is heavily dependent on our social interactions with others. Vygotsky categorizes children’s elementary mental functions as attention, sensation, perception, and memory. It’s his theory that through engagement with the people in their environment, these elementary mental functions will be molded into higher level mental functions that are guided by the more experienced, intelligent people, also known as an MKO (more knowledgeable other), around them such as a parent or a teacher at school. These interactions between child and a more experienced person is what the child internalizes and uses as a basis for developing their behavior and transitioning to higher mental functions. These higher mental functions result in the blossoming of independence in work and thought, using cooperative and collaborative discussion as a catalyst.
By the time children reach middle childhood they have been exposed to a number of different social interactions with other children and adults. Children begin to grow in their cognitive development as they obtain different ways of thinking through older people with more knowledge. It is said that Vygotsky had a greater advantage over Piaget as he worked in a period of great social upheaval that put different social and ethnic groups into the same educational focus as explained by Kozulin (2003). The development of children’s higher mental process is said to depend on the interaction with people and the environment, therefore a child is exposed to higher processes which lead to an increase in cognitive development as Vygotsky’s theory is founded on real contact and interaction. As stated by Lloyd and Fernyhough (1999) children arrive at knowledge of the world through activity.
He agrees with the behaviorist learning theories of classicaland operational conditioning. However, he added two important ideas: modeling process and observational learning (McLeod, 2011). Children observe people around them. They play or act based on how they see other people do it. Thus, the action or behavior of children towards others can be explained through social learning theory.
Bandura’s Social Learning Theory demonstrates “how children are socialized to accept the standards and values of their society.” (Grusec, 1992, p. 785). While Bandura’s empirical contribution to our understanding of human development is extremely significant, there are not only strengths, but also weaknesses associated with SLT. I see it as a clear strength that the social learning theory has been well researched, documented and can be clearly observed in a scientific and objective mater. Bandura’s studies (1961, 1971), amongst others, clearly show the process of children learning through observation and imitating the behavior of their models. Being a mother of two sons and teaching kindergarten children, I witness children’s observational learning on a daily base.
Vygotsky believed that cognitive development was limited at any age and based on social development. He took everything into consideration, how the child is raised, their culture, and also how they learn to think. His theories stress over the necessary role of social interaction in cognitive development, Vygotsky argued with Piaget’s and strongly believed that social learning comes before development. Unfortunately, he developed a sociocultural approach to cognitive development but passed away at 38 of age without finishing his theories. Lev Vygotsky theories are closely connected to Piaget and Bruner.
Vygotsky’s cognitive theory emphasizes “individual development could not be understood without reference to the social and cultural context within which the individual was embedded” (Triplett, 2016). Throughout the events recalled, it is evident that Victoria’s world is shaped by experience and influence. In general it is nearly impossible to fully understand a person, nonetheless one going through adolescence, without knowing where they are coming from socially, culturally, and developmentally. For those who work with or intend to work with adolescents it is imperative that you form a relationship first, one in which you take the time to show care and interest in what’s important to them so that they can reciprocate by wanting you to accept
Children also need certain skills to adapt to their social environment. This could be dressing and feeding themselves. To be able to do this they must have good fine motor skills. A lot of what children learn comes from the environment they are in. Participating in group activities and story time can help a child with their intellectual
The parents make this decision for them so that the child can individually learn how this would benefit them in the future. Schalet’s findings fit with the constructivist theories of childhood socialization because children can learn individually (individualistic) and the construct their own views from their parents and society around them. This model is known for the child appropriating society and has three dimensions: active children participation, future oriented, and focused on the individual learning experience. An example of this comes from the Dutch parents allowing their children to sleepover with the opposite sex. The children (adolescents) have an active role in determining the best way to go about this action of safe sex.
Introduction As children begin to grow, they start to make sense of the world around them. Cognitive development in children and adolescents is a topic highly researched by psychologists as it underpins all other aspects of development such as language, communication and comprehension. There has been much debate with regard to cognitive development because of the many varying theories on the topic, the most popular being the works of Lev Vygotsky and Jean Piaget. Piaget’s theory, although highly respected has shown many shortcomings of which Vygotsky’s approach seems to fill in the gaps by emphasizing rather than neglecting the role of social interaction and mediated learning (Harwood et al., 2008). The Sociocultural Approach Vygotsky’s