First of all, Language Awareness is a bridge which helps to connect English and foreign language in curriculum (Hawkins 1974 cited in Hawkins 1999). It provides a forum for learners and teachers to discuss a variety of languages in common vocabularies. For instance, children have the opportunity to learn numbers, colours and animals in three languages. Besides, these activities foster language awareness as teachers use children’s existing experience and knowledge of their first language in order to make sense of a new language (Bolitho 2003). This will help children to relate and understand better of the new language.
According to Piaget, “learning is a process of schematic change, or schema building” (p. 42). Schema building occurs through different processes: assimilation and accommodation, equilibrium (or adaptation) through action and exploration through using objects as tools for discovery, and using language as an object of knowledge, which children act upon. Piaget also said that children learn through peer collaboration, they overcome their initial egocentrism through interaction with other children. Both Piaget and Vygotsky theorized that children “construct knowledge through active and thoughtful engagement with their worlds” (p. 48) and then internalize their social experiences. Vygotsky developed the concept of “zone of proximal development” which is “an area in which children experience a challenge as they pursue a task, but do not become frustrated, and is activated through social collaboration or children’s play” (p. 49).
For example, a child’s language skills may develop further through a teacher ‘modelling’ the way in which certain words should be used and pronounced, and the child absorbing the information via the teacher’s use of the language, and the child then using the new language skills correctly in the same or a different context. Another important part of Vgotsky’s theory is scaffolding which is extremely important for children with SEN. In scaffolding support is given to children until they develop unto being able to carry out activities and attain a level of independence and knowledge. The scaffolds or support is removed gradually piece by piece. Example is how the scaffolds of a house are removed gradually until the completion of the house when it doesn’t need them anymore.
ARTICLE POINT OF VIEW 1: NEED ANALYSIS What is need analysis? NA or Need Analysis is a method of making early analysis for the priorities of the syllabus that the course intends to offer and achieve from the student (Long, 2005). This way need analysis helps in framing of questions, subject matter and even test such that the main motive of English Learning can be achieved by the students (Batt, 2008). Need Analysis is a method of gathering information about the student so that his future educational program can be framed as per the needs of learning (Iwai et al., 1999). Berwick (1989) stated that need analysis is actually the collection of information about the identification of problems and limitations and selecting the various methods and
The factors include, the strategies that are employed in reading, the type of vocabulary that is in the text, phonological awareness, the attitude of the child, the motivation to read, knowledge of the article, ability to recognize work, the working memory of the child and comprehension awareness (Sanford, 2015). . Teachers can employ strategies of instruction which involve explaining to learners in different ways that they can be able to utilize and use comprehension strategies. This is always the first step in three phase instructional framework. The teacher then proceeds in giving support to the students at different levels as they practice.
He believed that knowledge is socially co- constructed then internalized. The major theme of Vygotsky 's theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. Through this interaction, children learn gradually and continuously from parent and teachers He asserted that much of children’s learning takes place during play. This is because language and development build upon each other and the best way to develop competency is through interaction with others in a special way. Social interactions between a teacher and a learner not only impart skills but they also give the learner the context and the cultural values of that skill, and they
Being able to go back and forth to different speaking, writing and reading languages is what helps children learn better focusing skills. Starting at an early age they have the ability to mimic the native pronunciations which helps in learning another language easier. Learning a second language helps challenge your brain by teaching it to recognize, negotiate meanings, and communicate in different language
Integrating project work for the improvement of communication skills of technical students- students analyse a project work in the target language by discussions in groups, make a report by using a pre-designed questionnaire, and give a presentation. 4. What are the advantages of content-based instruction? (Peachey, 2016) • It can make learning a language more interesting and motivating. Students can use the language to fulfil a real purpose, which can make students both more independent and confident.
On the contrary, “intrinsic motivation” means that the learner is applying “integrative orientation”, and they are learning a second language for “emphasizing identification with an L2 community”. For instance, if a learner is studying English for immigrating to an English-speaking country so as to identify himself or herself to the community, he
The observation activity with a progressive school such as Nest provides valuable insight on how learning theories can help students in the learning language. For this specific activity, I was tasked to observe a 2nd grade class during their English subject. The class started with an introductory greeting from the teacher which was followed by classroom management procedures such as clearing the table and arranging the study area before the actual lesson begins. This reflection would concentrate on the application of Bloom’s taxonomy of learning domain in learning the English language and Bruner’s learning theory. It highlights the importance of using visual aids and illustrations in developing the language skill of the learner.