In the early childhood context, teachers are handling the ages 0-5, therefore we observe the beginning of a baby's use of senses and movements to explore the environment around them and then further on recognising the development of children's categorising of symbols. As a teacher, I have personally seen the growth of a child from the age 2 till 5 and the progression of starting to crawl and beginning to walk, classifying similar objects under one name to separately identifying items, this development can be seen as being influenced by the environment the child was in and those they were interacting
Erikson was highly influenced by Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytical Theory of Development. Although, at first Freud was limited to childhood based on the phallic stage, Erikson focused on developing a lifespan theory. The eight stages are as followed: Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy): The basic and fundamental psychological task is for infants to develop a sense that their needs will be met by the outside world. Is their caregiver responsive, reliable, and willing to meet their needs? That basic trust is facilitated by a responsive caregiver once an infant gets hungry, injured, or needs to be changed.
There are two theorists associated with cognitive development; Piaget and Vygotsky. Piaget believes that things children learn and do are organized as schemes, groups of similar actions and thoughts are repeated in response to the environment. Vygotsky believes that thoughts and language are separate functions for infants and toddlers. This is important for me to know because when teaching my first graders using Piaget’s belief that children curiosity to adapt to their environment, will help me in setting up my classroom so as to provide the friendliest environmental atmosphere. Another useful belief of Piaget that I intend to use, is by exploring and manipulating physical objects, children gain a relationship with their physical environment.
Introduction This assignment is in two parts. The first part of this assignment would attempt to use the theories of human development to explain the child behaviours observed during child observation at the preschool while the second part of this assignment would propose an intervention on a scenario at my practice placement. I would demonstrate my critical understanding of the theories and evaluate their relevance for evidence-informed and value-based practice. I would conclude by articulating my critical appreciation of the use of theory to inform professional social work practice based on my experience from the child observation and my placement experience.
Technology Affecting Child Development Child development is one of the main aspects of growing and developing as a human being, especially Cognitive Development. Encyclopedia of Children’s Health defines cognitive development as “The construction of thought processes, including remembering, problem solving, and decision-making from childhood through adolescence to adulthood.” Starting from a young age, babies begin to learn about the world that surrounds them. They learn and absorb new information in the environment that surrounds them.
One of the most well known theories in cognitive development is Piaget 's theory. The psychologist Jean Piaget theorized that as children 's minds development, they pass through distinct stages marked by transitions in understanding followed by stability. Piaget describes four different stages of development: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operation, and formal operations. Each stage describes the thinking patterns of a child depending on his or her age. In order to compare the thinking processes of a three-year old and a nine-year old using Piaget 's theory, you must compare two sequential stages of cognitive development: preoperational and concrete operations.
For the purpose of this essay, a child developmental theory will be referred to as an approach and development will be defined as “the pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the life span” (Santrock, 2011, pp.6). This essay
The first stage is the sensory motor stage ( birth-2 yrs.) , in this stage child does not know the physical object in existence when out of stage. Second stage is called the preoperational stage (age2-7), no abstract conceptualisation is possible where it needs concrete physical situation. In the stage is concrete operational stage (age7-11), starts to conceptualize with experience that accumulates. The fourth stage is formal operation (11-15), cognitive structures resembles like adults and includes conceptual reasoning.
Throughout the year we have learned about many different theorists who have done a great but also horrible job at explaining adolescent/ young adult development. In this paper I will be talking about Freud and Piaget, and how I think that Piaget was the better theorist than Freud when it comes to talking about development. I will also be talking about the similarities and difference between the two. For starters, what are their specific steps of development? Jean Piaget used observations of his own children to develop the four stages that we know he created today.
According to Piaget, as children develop they acquire cognitive structures known as schemata and concepts. Schemata are mental representations / rules to help children understand their world and solve problems. Concepts are rules that describe properties of environmental events and their relations to other concepts (Martin, Carlson & Buskist, 2007). Children obtain schemata and concepts by engaging with their surroundings. The
The second stage is between age of 2 to 6 years old, children form ideas with words and images, which is tend to be over generalizing. Developmental phenomena of this stage include pretending play, egocentrism and language development. And then the third stage from 7 to 11 years old, children think logically about concrete events and understand similar events. In this period, abilities of conversation and mathematical transformation get to be developed. Last stage, 12
At this stage, a child begins to perform roles and actions (imitation) of a grown up, along with familiar events. However, at the age of three or four years, the child’s skills then become symbolic; he/she learns substitution in the form of objects. For example, a child feeding a stuffed animal using a toy bottle, whereas an older child is feeding the stuffed animal using a highlighter in pretense that it would act as a feeding bottle for a baby. This stage also builds a solid foundation for children as they get their own experience through
As for Piaget, interaction with peers is more effective than those with people carrying higher skills and capabilities. The reason is that peers’ ability is almost equivalent with each other. So that it is not stressful for people to express different views. Consequently, cognitive development is promoted by interaction with peers through cognitive conflicts. On the contrary, cognitive development is motivated by interaction with people such as teachers and parents in Vygotsky’s theory (Vygotsky,1978).