However, in the case of Oscar’s intention to change the method of calculating the amortization expense for the relevant financial period, it can be said that this remedy is not critically conflicting with the betterment of the company. His action of change is actually desirable because it may increase net income, which is good for the business. However, the ethical dillema only starts because of the inclusion of his personal motives and interests that blurs professionalism and ethical decision making for the company. In the end, Oscar does not need to isolate himself with this case. He can always consult the higher team, without the need to divulge his personal interest.
Leela Crosby and Alysha Shroff I did the questions and Alysha did the vocabulary ACTIVITY 1 Bond- a certificate issued by a government or a public company promising to repay borrowed money at a fixed rate of interest at a specified time. Capital Gains- a profit from the sale of property or of an investment. Capital Goods- goods that are used in producing other goods, rather than being bought by consumers. Capital Loss- is the result of selling an investment at less than the purchase price or adjusted basis. Common Stock- shares entitling their holder to dividends that vary in amount and may even be missed, depending on the fortunes of the company.
The forecasted cash outflow and inflow for every period must be recognized and additionally the expected discount rate in order to compute NPV. In spite of the fact that the correct value can be identified after project completion but reasonable appraisals can be made by taking a gander at the execution of comparable projects. NPV formula as below where Ct is net cash inflow, Co is total investment, r is discount rate and t is no. of years. The NPV technique empowers companies to change in accordance with the difficulties of working with constrained financial resources.
The dividends are taxed as well. As you can see, with the money being taxed through the market, and also through dividends it is taxed two times. But, debt is only taxed one time, so when the firm makes money it gets taxed immediately. However, when the firm pays interest to its creditors the interest is not taxed. So the interest paid on debt are treated differently than dividends paid out to
If additional liquid cash exists, then it is the most relevant source of finance for new projects. Alternatively, pressurising debtors for early settlement or extending the payment period for creditors could help increase the cash resources. However, if this strategy doesn’t work, then the company must consider raising finance externally. If finance needs to be raised externally, should it be debt or equity? Here a company needs to consider how much it should borrow.
Tax deferred deductions will lower the gross taxable wages for the paycheck by the amount of that deduction. Taxes will not be paid on this deducted amount until a later date, usually after retirement. Many people like this type of deduction because it lowers the amount of taxes being withheld from the paycheck increasing the net pay. These style of deductions could be 401(k), IRA and some insurance premium deductions. 401(k) and IRA accounts have their tax liability paid at the time the money is withdrawn out of the account.
Accrual accounting and Cash flow accounting are critical factors which contribute to judgments and decision-makings that lead to a successful business. It is debatable whether accrual accounting is preferred to cash flow accounting, while there are some financial economists are in favor of using cash flow basic to report. This chapter will first give a foundation of accrual and cash flow accounting, then discuss the advantages as well as drawbacks of both methods and give the conclusion which type of accounting is suitable to record. Accrual accounting is an accounting that revenues are recognized when sales have been made and expenses are recorded when they are incurred, even the cash receipt from the revenue or the cash payment related to
The other classification, reinvestment risk means “the returns on funds to be reinvested will fall below the cost of funds” (Cornett, Lange & Saunders 2013). As discussed above about expansion to the investment banking business, Wellfleet can orchestrate syndicated loans and leveraged loans through its investment banking businesses, so that several banks together have the ability to take larger loans for profits with more currency than that of only one financial institution. But interests of the loans are possible to be lower than the funds reborrowed by Wellfleet, in which condition would lose money and this operation would be failed. Proposal Assumptions: • Counterparty: Gatwick Gold Corporation (GGC) – a large gold producer • The counterparty is rated 5B by Wellfleet’s internal rating model and credit committee. This translates to (Probability of Default) PD = 0.39% • Product Type: syndication.
Roles of financial forecasting i. Business and investments are forward looking activities. Both the business manager and the investor look towards the future for financial achievements in the form of profits and cash flow. Therefore it is necessary for these business managers and investors to seek and review financial plans and financial forecasts to help them determine financial viability and revenue prospects of the companies they are assessing. ii.
Monetary Policy Monetary Policies are the decisions guided by the monetary authority to manage the money supply or to change the interest rate to influence the rate of economic growth. When the monetary authority (or central bank) lowers the interest rates, it reduces the cost of borrowing which encourages people to take loans and mortgages; it also encourages investment. On top of that, people will become more willing to spend instead of saving. As a result, it increases the aggregate demand in the country. For example, when the global financial crisis broke in 2008, in UK, the Bank of England’s Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) lowers the interest rate from 4.5% to 0.5% less than 6 months to cut the cost of borrowing (BBC, 2014).