Within this conditions the daily life in international system is always characterize by struggle among states with the possibility of war in the background. It can be conclude that the condition of anarchy shape the international politics by dictates states behaviour as the primary units in the
has even demonstrated its force worldwide through things like the military to expand its influence politically and has aided them in reaching these different markets. With military bases, all over the world it is extremely easy to see why this is considered imperialistic trait. The Unites States military is used a tool of influence and intimidation. This is easy to see with a military budget that has reached heights so great and has expanded past NATO’s recommended 2% of GDP. In fact, the U.S.’s budget for “national defense” is so great it is more than twice all the other countries in NATO combined.
Therefore, it is believed that only actions derived from duty have moral values, and those descended from inclination should not be considered worth morally in any case. This theory differs considerably from Aristotle’s beliefs in Nichomachean Ethics when he argues that taking the right action by inclination is a proof of a moral character. Moreover, duty is necessary to create universal rules. One of these rules states that we should act upon pure intentions because moral rules cannot be excused, hence lying is always wrong. Unfortunately, there is an issue with pure reasoning- every experience is different.
For many adherents, religion is holy and pure, rising above the concerns of everyday life, while politics is exactly the opposite, grubby in a way that displays the worst aspects of human nature. But although faith and government might not seem like a natural marriage, squaring this relationship is precisely what Jean-Jacques Rousseau and James Madison try to do in On the Social Contract and Memorial and Remonstrance, respectively. Madison and Rousseau wrote barely two decades apart, and they reviewed much of the same historical information in preparing their analyses. Therefore, one might think that their political philosophies, and thoughts on religion, would align closely. However, they actually have key points of disagreement; namely, Rousseau wants the state to play an active role in religion, whereas Madison does not.
Ritce (2013) adds more arguments in stating that morality is indeed a social construct. Rice states that the beliefs and values of people all around the world vary so greatly that there is a huge gap between what we believe and what exists in the society. Even with people asserting what should be, there can never be a consensus on what right and wrong is in our society. In addition to this, we can say that no one is really
In Utilitarianism the standard of morality is set on the basis of what is good for most and not just for one person. John Stuart Mill stated that: “The creed which accepts as the foundation of morals, Utility, or the Greatest Happiness Principle, holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of
Discrimination is not the only reason for the lack of women advancing through international relations; Tickner argues that on top of that the field of international relations theory in itself is discriminatory. Tickner presents a feminist analysis of Hans Morgenthau's six principles of political realism, which, the author claims, exhibit a masculine bias. It argues that realism is not an inaccurate portrayal of the international system but an incomplete one that is a partial picture of reality. She specifically chose to focus on Morgenthau’s six principles because they are the core and most influential studies currently in international relations. Morgenthau’s Six Principles summarized: • International Relations theory is a rational theory that reflects the objective laws of politics • Politics is rational, objective, and unemotional.
Fundamental problem theory with this theory is that it assumes everyone is tradable. The right of freedom of choice of some people is being violated for the benefits of the larger population. People who do not wanted to leave their land were forced to sacrifice their freedom of choice. The aim of the morality is to make the world a better region. Morality is about creating good consequence, not having good target.
Such a situation is merely 'a device of representation ' and not a real condition. According to Rawls, these citizens would agree on two major principles: that 1) 'each person has the same indefeasible claim to a fully adequate scheme of equal basic liberties, which scheme is compatible with the same scheme of liberties for all '; and that 2) social and economic inequalities 'are to be attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity; and second, they are to be to the greatest benefit of the least-advantaged members of society (the difference principle) ' (Rawls 2001, 42). In other words, it would be reasonable for these citizens to pursue justice beyond individual presuppositions, prejudices and preferences, at least because it would be irrational for them to allow for such conditions under which their own preferences would be
Second, there develops an extraordinary confidence in humanity's capacity to know and even to master nature, society, and the self. Third, the problems of politics are not simply to be mitigated, but they are to be permanently solved. Fourth, the autonomous individual, rather than society, is assumed to be the starting point for constructing a political system that would provide the grounds for legitimating and justifying a political system. First, the new science provides an essential break with the medieval world. Descartes and Hobbes came to be founders of liberal rationalism, and Locke joins them as a founder.