The teacher can regulate instructions rapidly during learning development, allowing students to benefit from these rapid adjustments by means of regulating and emerging own learning progress. Feedback occurs while learning takes place, and effective feedback identifies the gap between where student remains at and where student desires to be. The teacher can be confronted with predicaments performed during formative assessments. There remain no obvious solutions to a situation, and a decision made, exists dependent on the individual situation, appropriate to the teacher and student involved. The teacher relies on professional judgement, formatively assessing the purpose of provoked action.
To complete task 3 of TSL 3123, Language Assessment I have to write a critical report thoroughly throughout the course. Foremost, we have been taught about the difference between assessments, test, and evaluation. From there, I get to know that the assessment is a large scope and the test is one of its components. Only then, I realize that we can assess the pupils in various ways not only by producing worksheets and written tests. Teachers have to master the assessment skill well because they have to assess the pupils throughout the teaching and learning process.
2.2. Reasons for Textbook Evaluations The mentioned textbooks’ advantageous and disadvantageous and a brief review of extensive literature on textbook evaluation reveal its importance. Textbook evaluation is important for many and various reasons: the need to adapt new textbooks; permit the instructors to use strong points and strengthen the weak points by adapting and using other textbooks; help teachers to gain good insight toward the nature of textbooks; develop the teachers’ awareness in the different ways of evaluation. Some of Sheldon’s (1988) reasons for textbook evaluation are: Enables the managerial and teachers to discriminate between all of the available textbooks on the market. Make educators to be familiar with a book 's content and identify the strengths and weaknesses in textbooks already in use.
Instead, rubrics are provided to be more objective when deriving a final summative grade. Through my teaching experiences, I find rubrics are very useful in marking essays as it is clearly differentiated. On the flip side, rubrics helps to give a precise feedback to students. Therefore, this rubric can help students to improve on the area that has been highlighted for their next assessment. Therefore, rubric can be used for summative assessment or formative assessment.
general or g factor) that takes merely the verbal and logical capacities of individuals into consideration .This resulted in failing to count for language learners’ potentials for further growth. Hence, in recent decades, Gardner (1983, 1999) has developed a broader model/theory of intelligence, labeled as Multiple Intelligence(s) (MI) which regards intelligence as a set of abilities. Within this regard, Intelligence is defined as “the ability to solve problems or to create products that are valued within one or more cultural settings” (Gardner, 2011, p.28). Armstrong (2009, p. 120) stated that applying multiple intelligence (MI) can be influential as it may remarkably “affect students ‘behavior in the classroom simply by creating an environment where individual needs are recognized and attended to throughout the school day.” The present study, thus, aims at investigating the relationship between multiple intelligence, language learning strategy use and achievement among MA first year English students at
Preliminaries The effects of classroom interaction on language learning have long been a focus of research for second and foreign language teachers and researchers (Allwright, 1984; Chaudron, 1988; Ellis, 1984; 1994; van Lier, 1988). They argue that language learning comes about as a consequence of the interplay of the factors created by the learners, the teacher, and the interaction among them (teacher-student, student-student). Allwright (1984) sees classroom interaction as "the fundamental fact of classroom pedagogy because everything that happens in the classroom happens through a process of live person-to-person interaction"(p. 156). Classroom interaction is indeed a complicated phenomenon. Teachers ' perceptions of the nature of language learning, of classroom activities, and of norms for classroom participation often differ from those of their students, who have a wide variety of proficiency levels, linguistic background, culturally predisposed ways of learning, and individual motivations and objectives in studying the language.
In order to enrich research results and provide more insights on specific formative assessment principles, a semi-structured interview was used in this research. The semi-structured interview enabled the researcher to obtain in-depth statements of preferences, opinions and experience about formative assessment. Drever (1997) described the term semi-structured interview as “a general structure by deciding in advance what ground is to be covered and what main questions are to be asked. This leaves the detailed structure to be worked out during the interview.” (p. 1). Using semi-structured interviews can lead the researchers directly to the particular values and beliefs that teachers attach to particular techniques of formative assessment.
Bell (2005) claims that the teachers of language should engage their learners by using of group working and encouraging their learners to more communicative activities. Although the literature is supplied with studies dedicated to either students’ or teachers’ opinions of various aspects of language learning and teaching (Rubin, 1975, 1981; Naiman Frochlich, Stern, & Todesco, 1978; Wong-Fillmore, 1979; Nation & McLaughlin, 1986; Larsen-Freeman & Long, 1991; Brosh, 1996; Sakui & Gaies, 1999; Horwitz, 1999; Yang, 1999; Cotterall, 1999; Rifkin, 2000; Peacock, 2001; Liao & Chiang, 2003) many researches have specially compared and contrasted individual teachers’ opinions of effective teaching practices with those of students. (Kern, 1995; Bell,
Formative, summative, traditional, alternate are ways of assessment. Research shows that it is important to use multiple assessments to test a students ability, Walt Honey, 1991, quoted in Assessment as Learning by Lorna Earl, 2003). Conventional and alternative assessment task are the two main domain of assessment types. Conventional which is also known as traditional assessment is a component of summative assessment which will be tested to provide final feedback to stakeholders about learners achievement. It also help teachers to assign grades and determine learner's current ability.
The abstract discusses the purpose of the study which is, to take a closely look at how classroom assessments are carried out at primary level in Pakistan by two types of teachers; subject and General teachers. Readers are given a description of how the authors intends to collect data, their findings having carried out the research, as well as the recommendations. The introduction of the article speaks to the importance of assessment and the benefits for both teacher and student when carried out on a continuous bases. Key terms, like summative and formative assessment, single and subject classroom teacher, were mentioned and clearly explained to help readers follow throughout the article; this allows persons who are not familiar to the education profession to be able to read and understand the article clearly. The body of the article is divided into a two-part review of literature.