The average equivalent mass for the acid is 135g/mol H+. 3. The answer obtained in Question #2 is the equivalent mass of the acid rather than the molar mass because the acid could be polyprotic, which would mean the equivalent mass is different from the molar mass since it is depending on moles of H+ per molecule, and there could be multiple moles of H+ ions in one mole of a molecule. 4. The KHP and the acid samples must be dried, because there would still be extra water which would skew the molarity.
Screening to separate the large contaminants from the water b. Coagulation to attract small contaminants c. Sedimentation where water sits and finishes coagulation d. Filtration to remove any small remaining contaminants and particles e. Disinfection by disinfecting chemicals such as chlorine to kill microorganism or remaining bacteria 2. Explain the differences between primary, secondary, and tertiary sewage treatment. a.
Generally those regions belong to South Asia, Central America, Africa and Southeast Asia. This arsenic contamination provides a multiple layered threat to further contamination on food chain. With crops, the contamination of arsenic is through intake from the soil itself and then compounded with contaminated water that is used for irrigation. When it reaches the population, in arsenic contaminated region, the threat is also increased not only from the crops but also from contaminated water used for drinking and cooking
However, discharge of the brine produced by the RO desalination process results in many environmental adverse effects, due to the high concentrations of metals and salts. Recovery and removal of elements from RO brine would decrease environmental benefits and have economic gains in the production of valuable metals . Le Dirach et al.  are listed magnesium as element that potentially economically for extraction. 3) Extraction of lithium from salt lake brine and seawater is one of the main sources of lithium production.
The salt that ends up in the ponds, streams, and rivers adds a layer of salt water, which restrains nutrients away from underwater vegetation and organisms (Beaudry, Frederic). The chemicals cause many different reactions to the vegetation, which results in the plants dying. The harmful effects of sodium chloride and other chemicals can damage vegetations development and can cause plants to die. After road salt is applied to major highways, there is a considerable amount of salt left over and the residue can cause serious problems on the environment. When road salt is being used it should be more controlled and the amount should be managed so that there are no left-over chemicals on the road that could cause damage.
One of the most important causes of Nile contamination is discharging of industrial facilities (Mohamed et al., 1998). Factory waste contains heavy metals such as, Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu), which cause toxicity. In this essay, the discussion will point to Nile contamination as a controversial issue and highlight some health problems which occur as consequences of using polluted water in Egypt. Likewise, the essay will raise some scientific methods to determine the percentage of heavy metal in water supported by example. Then it will suggest some chemical technical solutions to reduce the percentage of heavy metals in Nile and reuse it again for many purposes.
Most people are exposed to a certain level of pesticides. Farmers who experience routine exposure to pesticides have exhibited neurological symptoms such as headache and hand tremors. Children, in particular, may be more susceptible to negative effects resulting from pesticide exposure. Pesticide runoff can have devastating effects on nontarget organisms as well. For example, roundup, an extremely common herbicide used in agriculture, is highly toxic to fish and amphibians.
The product (Cu(OH)2) was unstable and could reform Cu2+ and OH- ions due to its high solubility. This result can cause difficulties on separating Cu from the other metals in the AMD. Therefore, additional treatment, such as sulfidization, is required to prevent the occurrence of the reformation process
The quantity of acid neutralised is obtained by subtracting the moles of acid given at the start of the experiment, with the moles of acid titrated. Back titration is used for this experiment as Calcium Carbonate is volatile and is an insoluble salt. Therefore they cannot fully dilute with water. As it’s chemical and physical properties are non ideal for a Direct titration, Direct titration cannot be used to determine the Calcium Carbonate content in toothpaste. In Back titration, excess volumes of HCl acids are added to allow for titration with NaOH.