Nitrate serves as a source of nitrogen for many bacteria. They can also act as a final electron acceptor. Many bacteria can be differentiated and are identified by their capacity to reduce nitrates to nitrites. Most of the bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae reduce nitrates . OF test is used to differentiate those organisms that utilize carbohydrates aerobically (Oxidation) such as P. aeruginosa, from those that utilize carbohydrates anaerobically (Fermentation) such as members of the Enterobacteriaaceae.
There is no specific differences between every sample, however it was observed that the leaves of Amaranth plant were darker in sample 1 and sample 2, because it was contain high nickel and cadmium concentration in the soil (Ziaranti, P. , Somaye, 2014). By determining characteristic heavy metals especially Nickel and cadmium, they are still important because it contain micronutrients for the plants, but the higher amount of it could be have toxicity. High level in cadmium, have a negative effect for food chain of microorganism, it will damage the living tissue (Ziaranti, P. , Somaye,
The extraction efficiency was most successful with dichloroethane as diluents than any others. Stripping study was carried out with hydrochloric acid. The method was applied for the separation of Mo from minerals composed of different kinds of metals. In this experiment molybdenum was determined by drywashing it and was followed by spectrophotometrically analysis as a complex with Tiron at 390 nm. Turel and Patil (1996)  have established a rapid and selective method for the extraction of molybdenum with malachite green into nitrobenzene.
Vacuum filtration generally involves the use of vacuum filter flask, water pump, filter trap and sintered glass crucible. It is commonly used in organic chemistry laboratories suction filtration or vacuum filtration. The solution can be supersaturated, unsaturated or saturated. Vacuum filtrations is used to assemble recrystallized
In most cases, water was used as the solvent to the reaction mixture to dissolve the inorganic compound. The organic compounds will be separated from the aqueous mixture by extraction with an organic solvent that is immiscible with water. Therefore, they will form two layers when they are mixed together. The denser liquid will form the bottom layer. (Conversely, miscible liquids are soluble in each other.)
Exp. 10 - The Chemistry of Natural Waters David Graves 11/10/15 CHEM 111 Section 104 TA: Lai Shi Group Members: Jasmine Graves, Brad Hensler, Peter Hoholick Introduction Experiment 10: The Chemistry of Natural Waters investigates the topic known as water hardness. Hardness is a chemical property of water that evaluates the concentration of dissolved divalent cations such as Ca and Mg, which happen to be the two ions that are tested for in the experiment. Hardness can be measured in multiple ways such as molarity (M) or parts per million (ppm). Since all natural waters contain ion concentrations of dissolved minerals, it is important to known the hardness value because hard water can cause scale formation in industrial
However, discharge of the brine produced by the RO desalination process results in many environmental adverse effects, due to the high concentrations of metals and salts. Recovery and removal of elements from RO brine would decrease environmental benefits and have economic gains in the production of valuable metals . Le Dirach et al.  are listed magnesium as element that potentially economically for extraction. 3) Extraction of lithium from salt lake brine and seawater is one of the main sources of lithium production.
The purpose of this experiment is to analyze the P content in a wastewater sample and to test the efficiency of 2 different methods for P removal from wastewater. To analyze the P content in a wastewater sample, standard P solution is made and calibration curve is generated and phosphate concentration in wastewater is determined by using calibration curve that is generated. To determine the concentration of P, vanadomolybdophosphoric acid spectrophotometric method is used. The predominating form of phosphate is dependent on pH. H₃PO₄ ⇌ H₂PO₄⁻ + H⁺ pKₐ=2.12 H₂PO₄⁻ ⇌ HPO₄²⁻ + H⁺ pKₐ=7.25 HPO₄²⁻ ⇌ PO₄³⁻ + H⁺ pKₐ=12.7 This method is under the acidic condition and ammonium molybdate is reacted with phosphate, then, the product reacts
A wide variety of different monomer compositions of PHA has been described, as well as their future prospects for applications where high biodegradability or biocompatibility is required. PHA can be produced from renewable raw materials and are degraded naturally by microorganisms that enable carbon dioxide and organic compound recycling in the ecosystem, providing a buffer to climate change.Although more than 300 different microorganisms synthesize PHA(Steinbüchel, A et al,1995, Kim et al,2001, Lenz et al,2005, Hazer et al ,2007), only a few, such as Cupriavidus necator (formerly known as Ralstonia eutropha or Alcaligenes eutrophus), Alcaligenes latus, Azotobacter vinelandii, Pseudomonas oleovorans, Paracoccus denitrificans, Protomonas extorquens, and recombinant E. coli, are able to produce sufficient PHA for large-scale production. The objective of this study was to isolate and identification PHA-producing bacteria in different soils collected from Allahabad and characterization for Plant growth promoting traits for the enhancement of Rice seed germination under in Vitro