Waste Water Pollution

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
General
Water in the form of Liquid wastes are mostly generated through domestic, industrial and commercial uses. Inflows and infiltration are the terms which represent ground water and storm water seepage. Inflow means that the water in entering via direct connection points and infiltration means groundwater is seeping through leaks and cracks in the system. The domestic wastewater that comes from toilets, showers, tubs, sinks etc. is directed to the treatment facility for purification. In an average system, 60% - 90% of the potable water is directed to a wastewater treatment facility or an on-site septic system.
Wastewater is used water, which consists many substances such as human waste, soaps ,food scraps, chemicals,
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Organic particles are everything that is based on hydrocarbon. There are a number of different ways to define the amount of organic matter in wastewater, such as Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Volatile Solids (VS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), , Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Total Solids (TS) .
The oxidization of the organic material occur in all of the above methods involve. Micro organisms are used for the oxidizing in BOD5 and for COD a chemical oxidizer is used. The nonorganic water waste pollutants mainly includes nutrients such as ammonium and phosphate. The most common ions in wastewater are potassium, sodium, calcium, ammonium,chloride, magnesium, sulphate, phosphate and hydrogencarbonate .
The main contributors to eutrophication are phosphorus and nitrogen . In wastewater they have a unique position in that they exist in both inorganic and organic forms. Apart from the organic forms phosphorus exists as orthophosphate and polyphosphate and nitrogen as nitrite, ammonium, and nitrate .
3.1.3 Biological composition
From biological point of view, the content of different micro organisms can be evaluated. The micro organisms are classified into pathogenic and nonpathogenic
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Heavy metals are those elements with l atomic density larger than 5 g/cm3. These are those metals in the periodic table with an atomic number greater than 20, excluding the alkali metals. This is due to the similarity of their environmental behavior and chemical properties. Many of them are trace metals in the earth crust and most of them are toxic even in very low concentrations . Heavy metals are not only toxic for human beings but they are also toxic for plants.Zinc is the heavy metal which is essiential for the human growth but in low dose. They all are toxic if larger amounts are inhaled or

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