Among these, industries are creating a wide spread of pollution to the environment, especially the increased levels of heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, cobalt and mercury in to the soil and aquatic system; these heavy metals have highly hazardous and toxic nature which can affect the human health and living things. Generally, living systems near the industries would consume such heavy metal toxicity in different forms and leads to health risk and hazards like skin, lungs, and liver cancer . Cadmium affects the kidney and also rise diarrhea. Lead and mercury affect brain functioning, creates memory problem, increases blood pressure, skin rashes, miscarriage for pregnant women etc. .
Among all heavy metals cadmium is one such heavy metal that is most hazardous 3 and has deleterious effects on agricultural ecosystem, environment and human health. There are many sources are reported for cadmium contamination including, use of Cd-containing sewage sludge, industrial emission, application of phosphate fertilizers and municipal waste disposal4 especially in urban areas. Acute poisoning of cadmium in human beings causes shortness of breath, general weakness, fever, pulmonary edema,
Some heavy metals are essentials for the metabolism of our body. But too high concentration of the metals can lead to poisoning on the body system too. When talked about the danger of heavy metals, we are talking about the bioaccumulation that heavy metals can do
There are several types of water pollutants; one category is the microbiological, which refers to the contamination of viruses and bacteria in water. Another category is nutrient pollution, which is caused by excessive amount of nutrients in water supplies, making it undrinkable. Chemical water pollution refers to the chemical compounds that end up in water supplies. Many industries contaminate water with toxic or radioactive materials and sometimes use rivers and lakes to dispose of waste heat, resulting in thermal pollution. Water quality is threatened by many sources, besides fecal matter, water is exposed to many toxic substances.
Owing to the dangerous effects on human health, the European Union has established ambient air quality standards for certain toxic metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic, nickel) while air quality guidelines have also been recommended by the World Health Organization. Therefore, determination of total trace metals in PM samples is important in order to understand their potential effects on humans as well as the environment. Atmospheric particulate matter is usually collected on quartz fiber filters prior to analysis. Since most of the
The co2 emissions cause significant problems with the air quality and causing the climate to change for the worse. The POPS will not get better unless other actions are taken to prevent such disasters in the environment. Organic pollution can also be caused by a variety of chemicals from a variety of sources and can involve a variety of health effects from simple digestive problems to chemical intoxication and sudden death by poisoning. The effects are usually related to the exposure to high amounts of chemicals. Organic pollution leads to various serious diseases, generally by consuming water or breathing highly contaminated air.
Environmental damage occurs throughout the stages of exploration, production, refining, transportation and end use consumption. Potential impacts include water contamination due to effluent of wash and cooling water discharges, seepage from storage and waste tanks, discharges of water effluents rich in inorganic salts without appropriate treatment and water contamination of oil spills which could be very catastrophic such as the incident of The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in year 2010 and the oil spill resulting from the Gulf War in 1991. Also, this industry adds a considerable amount of NOx, SOx and particulate emissions and largely contribute to the soil and groundwater contamination resulting from the different chemical compounds and the produced
1.1 Background of study Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. Several industrial wastewater streams may contain heavy metals such as Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, etc. including the waste liquids generated by metal finishing or the mineral processing industries. The toxic metals, probably existing in high concentrations, must be effectively treated/ removed from the wastewaters. If the wastewaters were discharged directly into natural waters, it will constitute a great risk for the aquatic ecosystem, whilst the direct discharge into the sewerage system may affect negatively the subsequent biological wastewater treatment.
The contamination caused by heavy metals present in soil causes development of serious problems in agriculture. Heavy metals including cadmium, nickel, lead, and zinc are the major metals that contaminate the environment. The toxic effects of heavy metals on plants are due to production of different types of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical. These different forms of ROS usually disrupt different cellular processes by developing membrane damages (Pereira et al., 2002). Nickel is one of the natural elements that is found in different forms in the environment, soil, air, water, along with the body of plants and animals.
It entails lots of destructive multistep processes which can result in displacement of communities, pollution of water and land with toxic chemicals such as mercury, devastating effects on workers’ health and destruction of virgin environments. The use of the cyanide leaching technique in extraction has resulted in series of negative environmental impacts. Large quantities of water and energy are being used up and there is distinct changes in topography, hydrology, stability of the landscape and accumulation of pollutant in the environment. Emission of hydrogen cyanide, global warming and generation of hazardous wastes that endangers the health of people and ecosystems (Hilson, 2002 ; Bakatula et al. 2012).