Water And Water Pollution

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Water pollution caused by heavy metals is a global problem. The discharge of toxic metals into the ecosystem may severely affect the biotic as well as abiotic components of the environment. These metals are generally derived from different industrial activities such as mining, metal finishing, battery manufacturing, electroplating, etc. and are responsible for contaminating the receiving water bodies even when present in trace amounts. This is due to their carcinogenic and toxic properties (ATSDR, 2013). As the strict legislations have been introduced by various environmental protection agencies in the developing countries, the removal of heavy metals from water and wastewater becomes the subject of considerable interest in recent years (CPCB, 2008; WHO, 1996).
Manganese, nickel and copper are the common heavy metal contaminants and pose significant threats to human health. Manganese poisoning causes various severe health problems in vital organs of humans such as neurological disorders and harmful impact on human respiratory tract due to prolonged inhalation of Mn(II) (ATSDR, 2012). Gastrointestinal distress, pulmonary fibrosis and skin dermatitis are the most noted diseases in addition to lung and kidney problems associated with Ni(II) ion poisoning (ATSDR, 2005; US EPA, 1986). While Cu(II) does essential work in animal metabolism, the ingestion of Cu(II) beyond its permissible limit may cause serious toxicological concerns such as vomiting, cramps, convulsions or even

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