Water Contamination Of Water Management

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CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Background to the Study
According to Bothner, Buchholtz, Brink and Manheim (1998) contamination of water supplies by industrial waste is as a result of various types of industrial processes and disposal practices. According to the source, industries that use large amounts of water for processing have the potential to pollute or contaminate waterways through the discharge of their waste into streams and rivers, or by run-off and seepage of stored wastes into nearby water sources. Other disposal practices which cause water contamination include deep well injection and improper disposal of wastes in surface impoundments.
Industrial waste consists of numbers of both organic and inorganic substances. Examples of organic wastes include pesticide residues, solvents and cleaning fluids, dissolved residue from fruits and vegetables, lignin from pulp and paper to name a few. Effluents can also contain inorganic wastes such as brine salts and metals. The clean water Act (1991) provided standard for the permissible release of a limited amount of contaminants into waterways. This is an incentive for industry to pre-treat their waste water by neutralizing the chemically active components, recycling, dilution or extraction and collection for proper disposal.
Industries making use of large amounts of water in their treatment processes include chemical manufacturers, steel plants, metal processers and textile manufacturers.

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