Labels, MSDSs and walk-through inspections form the basis of a hazard identification programme. Once hazards are identified, it may be necessary to evaluate the extent of exposure or to test effectiveness of control measures. Results of monitoring programmes should be compared to occupational hygiene standards (occupational exposure limits and biological exposure indices) to determine the level of risk to the health of workers. The most important aspect of occupational hygiene is the control of hazards. However, identification and evaluation are necessary steps leading to implementation of appropriate and
Introduction Capacitive technique is an electromagnetic method which is able to measure water content of a material. Since moisture is a common cause of the pathology of reinforced concrete, it is essential to assess the water content in concrete. Once the water content is determined, the corrosion risk of reinforcement can be estimated. The following paragraphs will first describe the theory of this technique then to its application in structural health monitoring (SHM) with a case study. The principle The principle of capacitive sensors is to measure the changes in capacitance.
The safe storage of hazardous goods such as chemicals is an essential part of an environmental, health and safety program. Hazardous goods and chemical storage facilities has to comply with certain minimum safety standards to satisfy different authorities which include Local Authorities, Health and Safety, Fire Department and a few others. Safe storage begins with an always up-to-date inventory of hazardous material to ensure all staff are aware of the dangers in the warehouse or storage facility. An accurate inventory is also necessary if emergency personnel are to respond effectively to a fire, explosion or chemical release in the area. The business can be fined if it does not provide an inventory to emergency response personnel and appropriate regulatory authorities.
The relationship between watershed urbanization and aquatic ecosystem conditions has long been recognized and studied (Klein 1979, Benke et al 1981, Pitt and Bozeman 1983, Booth and Jackson 1997); even so, Arnold and Gibbons (1996) state that traditional stormwater planning has emphasized engineering for safety. This approach focuses on moving large amounts of runoff out of an area by collecting runoff in ditches and pipes, and then diverting it into nearby streams. A growing concern, however, has been for the downstream effects of this approach to stormwater management. Flooding, erosion, sedimentation and contamination are all possible outcomes from this approach. It is this concern for
It should be ensured that employees are undergo regular plan reviews and updates regarding the response plan. Emergency alarms should also be regularly tested. • Information An emergency organisation chart should be constructed along with the specific roles and responsibilities of individuals and bodies that are responsible for the direction and control of the entire emergency response within the working environment. A notification list or call out list should be provided to contact the specific personnel. A means of egress should also be provided in the workplace where all exits are marked with signage such as a plant site map.
Muthulakshmi et al. (2013)in their article of Assessment of water quality through indices around Kalpakkam, southeast coast of India discusses and compared four different water quality indices multiplicative water quality indices, viz. arithmetic water quality index, unweighted multiplicative water quality index, unweighted arithmetic water quality index, are considered for the characterizing the quality of water along the Kalpakkam coast, India. For the development of water quality indices physiochemical parameters such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), suspended particulate matter (SPM), temperature, turbidity, phosphate and nitrate are used. Analysis and comparison various water quality indices showed that the most suitable water quality index for coastal water of Kalpakkam is arithmetic water quality index and unweighted arithmetic water quality indices could be alternative
Conceptual Framework Municipal Wastewater Effluents Wastewater effluent is the final product of all earlier treatment processes, and it can be discharged to a stream, river, bay, lagoon or wetland (Davies et al. 2004). In this study, wastewater is a combination of domestic effluents, industrial effluents, run-off water, and water from commercial units; that are released into the common sewerage network of a city. Municipal wastewater effluents are of diverse qualities, ranging from raw to partially treated or diluted wastewater (Philipa & Tamer, 2012). It comprises, organic matter, suspended solids, nutrients like, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, inorganic matter or dissolved minerals, pharmaceuticals and pathogens (Davies et al.
Hydrological Cycle Introduction As previously expressed, a decisive factor towards the generation of power at any hydropower scheme is the flow-rate Q. Therefore to justify the feasibility of any scheme, a precise estimation of the both the level and behaviour of flow-rate levels must be made. In order to carry out this, an understanding of the hydrological system which generates water flow in streams and rivers must first be gained. Further to this, geological factors which harness and distribute water flow must also be investigated. The following chapter will examine these areas of the hydrological cycle along with the geological factors which contribute to the behaviour and variance in river flow.
2.5 METHODS OF WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS Water quality data may be interpreted on the basis of the both individual analysis and sets of analysis from one sampling site or different sampling sites in an area or aquifer being examined. In the case of individual analysis, the first step is the exanimation to accuracy, followed by estimation of source, mass balance examination of the minerals that may have dissolved or precipitated. Collectively, water analysis may be compared and interpreted using areal plots, graphical methods, and statistical analysis. Statistical analysis are usually separated into those useful for qualitative comparisons, for example, stiff diagrams, and those designed to detect chemical tends or mixing such as Piper or Durov
The common chief aims of many management and planning undertakings are to reduce the occurrence of extreme events like drought and floods and managing water supply for domestic and industrial use (including hydropower generation). In the wake of modern developments and the goal of sustainability becoming more important, the management policy for water resources now can include environmental and ecosystem restoration and protecting appealing and entertaining water resources related practices. Managing the functionality of a water regulating structure can provide a simple example that can help to understand the whole issue of planning. A reservoir meant for flood control can be used to regulate water for hydropower dams, but should it be used for water regulation purposes? If yes how much water should be regulated?