Benedict's reagent is an alkaline solution containing Cu(II) ions, which oxidize the aldehyde to a carboxylic acid. In turn, the cupric ions are reduced to cuprous oxide, which forms a red precipitate. Chemical reaction: RCHO + 2Cu2+ + 4OH- → RCOOH + Cu2O + 2H2O Again, Benedict’s solution contains copper sulphate. Reducing sugars, glucose and fructose, reduce soluble blue copper sulphate, containing copper(II) ions to insoluble red-brown copper oxide containing copper(I). This accounts for the precipitate formed.
Hardness is the hard scale forming in pipes, hot water tanks, cooking utensils, and boilers. This scale is metal-carbonate scale which reduces the capacity of pipes to transmit heat and carrying water. Odor (MCL 3 TON) The drinkability of fresh water is highly affected by odor. It is measured in the unit of Ton, which is the essential dilution factor before the odor becomes observing.1 Ton shows that water has polluted characteristics relatively from odor-free water. pH; A pH of fresh water 6.5-8.5 was set standard for environmental measurements.
Feedback control system regulates the rate of addition of lime by monitoring pH during addition. Lime is widely used for treating acidic wastes and is least expensive and the solution of excess lime do not reach extremely high pH values as solubility of lime in water is limited. Alkaline wastes could be neutralised by adding inexpensive acid, such as sulphuric acid. Acetic acid is preferable for some applications since it is nontoxic and biodegradable. Alkaline wastes can also be neutralised by bubbling gaseous carbon dioxide to form carbonic acid.
SOLUBILITY AND SOLUBILITY PRODUCT OBJECTIVE In this experiment you will determine the solubility and solubility product of a sparingly soluble salt, potassium hydrogen tartrate, and also in four solutions containing a common ion. INTRODUCTION When a salt of low dissolubility dissolves in water, equilibrium is established between the solid solute and the dissolved ions. There are two terms used in discussing this condition. The first is solubility, which is the maximum amount of salt that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent (usually water) at a specified temperature. Solubility is usually expressed in units of molarity (moles/L), but sometimes g solute/ g solvent is used.
Though there is starch in the mix of chemicals, the triiodide doesn 't react with it because that starch is immediately consumed in a reaction with the thiosulfate. Equation 2: I3S- + 2 S2O32- → 3 I- + S4O62- • I3S- = Triiodide • S2O32- = Thiosulfate ion • 3 I- = Iodide ion • S4O62- = Tetrathionate ion Here, the triiodide reacts with thiosulfate to form iodide ions and tetrathionate. This reaction is so fast that none of the triiodide has time to form a complex with starch, even though the starch is in the reaction mix. The reactions in Equations 1 and 2 are moving along during the lag time between mixing the chemicals and the dramatic appearance of the blue color. Note that iodide ions are regenerated in Equation 2, so they are available to react with the hydrogen peroxide in Equation 1.
The problem with these alternative methods is that they do not give us numerical values of the pH value but instead they display color changes indicative of alkalinity and acidity only. Electric conductivity Is the ability of a substance to conduct an electrical current measured in micro Siemens per centimeter. It is simply an indicator of the amount of salts dissolved in the stream and is commonly used to estimate the amount of total dissolved solids. Dissolved
Therefore, the result of the experiment does not agree with the literature value and is not suitable. Evaluation Weakness/Limitation Why? Suggestion Sodium hydroxide left in the pipette Few drops of NaOH might have been left in the pipette while transferring it to the conical flask. If some of it remains, there is a systematic error and the expected amount of moles in conical flask is lesser. Hence, the amount of ethanoic acid to neutralize sodium hydroxide is lesser too.
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However, all of them agree in their two phases, stationary and mobile. Stationary phase remains fixed in place where the mobile phase moves over it. Among the chromatography methods, TLC will be used to a lactose raw material in this experiment. TLC is the short form of Thin Layer Chromatography. TLC is the simplest, inexpensive, and also time saving chromatography.