An investigation of the relationship between different concentrations of Sodium Chloride and the rate of reaction of Amylase Marjolijn Hoogevoorst Yeshvanth Prabakar IS12 Word count: 2222 words Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy. Amylase is a type of digestive enzyme found in the pancreases and saliva of humans. Amylase breaks down starch into sugar, allowing large molecules to be digested easily. To function efficiently, amylase requires certain conditions. The effect of different sodium chloride concentrations in this on the rate of reaction of amylase will be investigated in this experiment along with the use of starch and iodine.
The simplest definition of diuretics is that they are chemical agents that increase the rate of urine formation and out flow 1. By this process, they lead to increased excretion of electrolytes such as sodium and chloride ions. Also, they increase water secretion from the body. The kidneys are the primary target organ for diuretics where they interfere with reabsorption of electrolytes from the Lumina of the nephrons 2, the functional unit of kidney. Each kidney contains about one million nephrons, each capable of forming urine separately.
Where is the information stored in DNA? a. Deoxyribose sugars b. Phosphodiester bonds c. Phosphate groups d. Nitrogenous bases 24. Acid chyme produced by stomach is neutralized In the intestine by which of the following? a. Pancreatic secretions b. Brush- border enzymes c. Gastric juice 25. In which of the following locations does the development of blood call take place?
Third, balance water and mineral intake and or control the secretion of water and minerals such as sodium, calcium, potassium, and chloride. Fourth, as the excretion of waste products of the ingredients, such as urea, uric acid, sulfate, and creatinin. In the medical world, there are two kinds of kidney failure, i.e., acute and chronic.
Instead, axons from two groups of hypothalamic neurons - the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) – terminate in the posterior pituitary. These specialized neurons produce the hormones ADH (antidiuretic hormone), also known as vasopressin, and oxytocin. When a person becomes dehydrated, osmoreceptors in the brain trigger ADH release into the systemic circulation. ADH travels to the kidneys where it promotes water reuptake in the epithelial cells lining the collecting ducts. The exact mechanism of action of ADH remained obscure until 1990, when Peter Agre discovered a class of protein channels, now called aquaporins, which selectively allow water molecules to cross the cell membrane.
The line of best fit gives the respiration rate of day-old seedlings as the concentration of NaCl they are exposed to increases. As NaCl Concentration increases the rate of cellular respiration decreases by .108 ppm CO2/g per second. This overall decrease throughout the data further supports our hypothesis. Discusion: The data collected in the experiment does support our hypothesis. By examining the data as a whole a trend of decreased cellular respiration in seedlings soaked in solutions with increased NaCl concentrations.
Similarly, as blood glucose falls, the amount of insulin secreted by the pancreatic islets goes down. Insulin has an effect on a number of cells, including muscle, red blood cells, and fat cells. In response to insulin, these cells absorb glucose out of the blood, having the net effect of lowering the high blood glucose levels into the normal range. Glucagon is secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets in the same manner as insulin...except in the opposite direction. If blood glucose is high, then no glucagon is secreted.
Valves in the efferent vessels direct lymph out of the node, along with antibodies secreted by plasma cells and cytotoxic T cells. Efferent vessels are wider and fewer than afferent, slowing lymph transport through the node, allowing time for the filtration process, while the lymph’s flow path through the node ensures antigens percolate through the lymphocytes and APCs to optimise effective antigen presentation (Mondino et al
ADH, elaborated by the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary, increases the permeability of the collecting ducts with reabsorption of water from the urine leading to antidiuresis. Factor that stimulate its secretion include • Osmoreceptors that detect increased osmolality of the plasma (above 280 mOsm1L) near the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei • Haemorrhage is a very potent stimulator • Decreased tension of the atrial walls, great veins and pulmonary vessels, as occurs in hypovolaemia, stimulates increased ADH • Renin-angiotensin mechanism: Angiotensin, released as a result of decreased renal blood volume or pressure, directly stimulates ADH secretion • Cutaneous and Visceral Pain: Visceral manipulation, pain and emotional stress also stimulate ADH secretion. • Drugs: Ether, nicotine, morphine and barbiturates can stimulate ADH secretion while alcohol inhibits
The taste of the Rhizoma Atractylodis Lanceae is pungent and bitter, the spleen and stomach channel will be entered. The active component of the Rhizoma of Atractylodis Lanceae is an essential oil (3.5-7%), which is included atractylon, atractylodin, elemol, hinesol. Atractylon is the active compounds in anti-inflammatory effect (Yamada and Saiki, 2005). Some research stated that Rhizoma of Atractylodis Lanceae components shown inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. Since Rhizoma of Atractylodis Lanceae may suppress the signal pathway of the release of thromboxane A2 (Nasu et al., 2009) Therefore, Rhizoma of Atractylodis Lanceae may have an anti-coagulation effect on human