Water Pollution Essay

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Water is a vital substance, as it is very essential for natural life (Lewandowska et al., 2000). An undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of water that will harmfully affect human life are known as water pollution (Singer, S. 1970; Akman et al., 2000; Sathyanarayanan, 2007). The aquatic ecosystem are directly or indirectly affected by pollution (Kosygin et al., 2007). Water body must be safe and free of risk factors. Risk factors related to water pollution, can be divided into two basic types: chemical and biological pollutants. Both types can always be linked to waste water resulting from domestic, agricultural and industrial activities (Subramanyam and Sambamurty, 2006; Sathware et al., 2007; (Grabow, 1996 and Payment et al, 1997).

Microbiological pollution in the marine environment can occur when treated and untreated sewage discharges reach the sea. Bacteria from humans and animals can affect water quality and marine biota. The risk to public health as a result of recreational exposure—swimming where sewage pollutes marine waters has been documented (Cabelli 1983, Rees et al. 1998). The presence of micro-organisms such as norovirus (NoV), astrovirus, rotavirus, hepatitis A virus (HAV), and pathogenic bacteria (e.g., Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Shiga-Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) are reported in coastal waters (Lipp et al. 2001). Furthermore, some studies revealed that

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