The aim of this paper is to conduct chemical and microbiological analysis of water samples. The need for standards and guidelines in water quality stems from the need to protect human health. The results revealed that there were several areas polluted chemically by some heavy metals (Ni, Cd, Pb, Mn and Fe) and microbiologically by (Entamoeba Histolytica, Amoeba,
If human being consumes these contaminated organisms, toxic compound will be accumulated in human body. Deeper approach of natural science such as biomedicine is important related to marine contamination. Biomedicine knowledge particularly in anatomical, physiological, genetic and biochemical models are proven to be very useful to explain the impact of contamination in life organisms in marine ecosystem. Furthermore, it can also develop explanation about what kind of disease that might be created because of the toxic compound entering the food chain (Hansen, 2007). For example is the case of Minamata in Niigata prefecture, Japan, where heavy metals produced by chemical factories pollute marine area can enter the food chain and accumulate in marine organism and even human
In fact pH can indicate the existence of aquatic life because of their sensitivity to pH change (Bordin, 1997). 220.127.116.11 Biological and Organic Pollutions Biological and organic pollutions can be measured by amount of organism per unit volume of water (i.e. E.coli, coliforms, or pathogens) (Papa et al., 1999), some other parameters such as Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and Dissolved Oxygen (DO), in mg/l also can describe how water is polluted. DO is available dissolved oxygen necessary for survival of various aquatic lives in water.
Heavy metals concentrations in aquatic ecosystems are usually monitored by measuring their concentrations in water, sediments, and biota (Oguzie, 2003). Pollution by heavy metals is a serious problem due to their toxicity and ability to accumulate in the biota (Islam and Tanaka, 2004). Metal pollution has a harmful effect on biological systems and does not undergo biodegradation and accumulated in living organisms, thus causing various diseases and disorders even in relatively lower concentrations (Pehlivan et al., 2009). A substantial level of heavy metals causes the major hazard to the environment and accumulates in the ecosystem through two major paths; the first path
The region of accumulation of pesticides within fish varies with the route of uptake. Their potential use as bio monitors is therefore significant in the assessment of bioaccumulation and bio magnifications of contaminants within the ecosystem .Many dangerous chemical elements, if released into the environment, accumulate in the soil and sediments of water bodies. The lower aquatic organisms absorb and transfer them through the food chain to higher trophic levels, including fish. Under acidic conditions, the free divalent ions of many metals may be absorbed by fish gills directly from the water . Hence, concentrations of pesticides in the organs of fish are determined primarily by the level of
Different toxicity assays using various physiological and biochemical biomarkers have been performed to generate the data concerned with the adverse effects of carbaryl on aquatic animals especially fish. In toxicological studies of acute exposure, change in activities and concentration of various enzymes may reflect the cell damage or abnormality in metabolic pathway that starts due to the stress developed because of toxicant exposure and the different changes occurring within the body to cope up with the deleterious effect of the pollutant. Fig. 1shows the various changes caused by any toxicants in the body of aquatic animals. These changes- behavioral, biochemical or molecular, when noticed carefully provide the evidence of exposure of certain pollutants on the organisms.
Introduction This paper describes the potential effects of drought and the responses of the aquatic biota to the drought situations. The focus of the paper will be principally on the response of the invertebrates and fishes to seasonal and supra-seasonal droughts. As said by Bradshaw & Holzapfel (1988), Corti, Kohler & Sparks (1988), and Webster et al. (1996) the situation remains the same for stagnant waters, floodplain ponds, and lakes respectively. The drought have impact on both human and also on the aquatic ecosystems.
Wastewater is a general term used to represent the water with poor quality containing lots of contaminants. Wastewater can cause serious environmental and health problems to human beings when discharged into the nearby water bodies. It is an important measure to lessen the pollutant and other contaminants present in wastewater. The first step in wastewater treatment method is primary treatment which removes the solids, oil and grease present in it. The second step which is the secondary treatment or biological treatment exploits microorganisms to eliminate the chemicals present in wastewater.
The range in human exercises that influence the connection of ground water and surface water is wide (Publishing Service Center, 2008). As per Erinn Soule, contamination in the sea is a noteworthy issue that is influencing the sea and whatever is left of the Earth, as well. Contamination in the sea straightforwardly influences sea living beings and in a roundabout way influences human wellbeing and assets. Oil slicks, poisonous squanders, and dumping of other unsafe materials are largely significant wellsprings of contamination in the sea. Individuals ought to take in more about these in light of the fact that if individuals find out about contamination in the sea, at that point they will find out about how to stop
Bivalves include numerous families that live in saltwater, and well as a number of families that live in freshwater and the majority are filter feeders that is by they will take in contaminants with the sea water after accumulation in their body animals would show a range of symptoms pertaining to pollution related effects. Hence, they will be good indicators of environmental pollution (Vaught, 1989). There are more effects of uncontrollable amount of nitrogenous wastes including high levels of nitrogenous substances in the water cause increase of microscopic or macroscopic plants, in a process called eutrophication. Death and decay of these plants would cause low oxygen content in the water. Eutrophication is a very serious pollution problem not just in coastal waters, but worldwide.