Water Pollution Essay

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The water-borne diseases are a worldwide major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans (WHO, 1996). Even though the rural communities are indigent, lack access to portable water supplies and rely mainly on boreholes, rivers, streams and ponds for their daily water needs (Nevondo and Cloete, 1999). In most cases water from these sources is used directly without treatment and even though some of the water sources may be faecally contaminated (WHO, 1993). Simple low-cost on-site sanitation methods have been developed to dispose faecal matter, mainly because of their economic advantage. However, the biggest drawback is the well-recognized potential to pollute groundwater resources (ARGOSS, 2001; Lewis et al., 1980), which conflicts with Integrated Water Resources Management principles, in particular to preserve the integrity of vital ecosystems and to maintain water quality and quantity. Given the widespread use of groundwater for domestic purposes in rural areas, maintaining groundwater quality is a critical livelihood intervention. Globally, the larger part of the population lives in rural areas and in Africa it is estimated that these people represent approximately 70–80% of the continent’s population.

As is the case with most rural communities in the country, the people of Ikwezi municipality mainly use borehole water as a source of domestic water and other purposes and ventilated pit latrines for sanitation. The geological setup and soil type in the study area, is

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