Water Pollution

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0 Background
The adage „water is life‟ summarizes the importance of water in our day to day existence. Even though it is a resource, it is easily abused and polluted. Water contains a myriad of chemicals which are both beneficial and detrimental to humans. The quantity and quality of this renewable resource are closely related; contamination reduces the supply of water and increases the treatment cost for use. One source of contamination is Agricultural runoff to surface waters, and this is said to be the major source for the dissolution of nitrate and phosphate compounds (Correll et al., 1999; Chadwick and Chen, 2002; Ensign et al., 2006). It represents the greatest contamination risk to surface water systems (Jamieson et al., 2002).
Diminishing water quality as a result of contamination has affected living resources through habitat degradation, thus reducing estuarine productivity and eliminating feeding and nursery habitats.
1.1 Statement of Problem
The river Volta Basin receives runoff water from the surroundings;- for settlers along the river are engaged in Agricultural activities which involve the use of agrochemicals and pesticides which could cause the deposition of trace metals in the sediment which contaminate the river, and this could be harmful to aquatic life. In light of this there is the need to regulate human activities that could have adverse effects on aquatic life. A large amount of sewage and other liquid and solid waste are
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