Just because of this, several species of fish and aquatic plants are endangered today. A lot of important plants are dying off due to toxic chemicals in the water. This harms the animals dependent on these plants. Fishes lose their breeding grounds and harm the overall ecosystem. This toxic water is also added on our farmlands by irrigation and because of this, the toxic chemicals are making their way into our food and cause diseases.
Water pollution refers to the changes in the physical, biological, chemical or thermal conditions of water body which harmfully disrupts the balance of ecosystem. Water pollution results when overwhelming amount of waste coming from different sources of pollutants such as effluent, litter, refuse sewage or contaminated runoff could no longer be accommodated by the natural ecosystem (WRC, 2000). The main sources of water pollution are agricultural activities, commercial and industrial discharges, domestic and municipal wastewater (Rashid, 2012). First of all, the agricultural intensification has been the origin of several harmful effects on the environment even if it allows covering the food needs of the population. The use of fertilizers and pesticides is considered to be the potential source of water pollution (FAO, 1978).
Eutrophication makes water resources unsafe for use as certain algal blooms, fertilizers or pesticides contain harmful chemicals that is not safe for usage. Lake Loktak is thickly populated with areas surrounded by cultivated lands. (Rashmi Rekha Patra, 2012) The fertilizers and sewage being washed or improperly disposed into the Lake are the main causes of eutrophication. The effects of eutrophication on water resources are vast. The water becomes unusable for recreational, consumption or agricultural purposes.
Another effect of the acid sulphate soil is the prevention of water logging and draining of industrial and agricultural runoff, which expose the pyrites to the atmospheric conditions for further oxidation (Rassam et al., 2002; Shamshuddin et al., 2004b). These dangerous compounds emanating from the oxidation of sulphate soil are easily moved into the rivers as rainfall runoff and thereby deteriorate the water quality. In addition, unless appropriate control measures are done to condition the soil, toxic substances penetrates to the surface and ground water through leaching and causes more severe damage to the eco-system (Lin et al., 1998). The major metals known to be associated with the acid sulphate soil are aluminium, iron and manganese and were all considered carcinogenic when their daily consumption are above the recommended levels. The high level of aluminium from the river is possible, since aluminium is naturally available on the earth crust and is easily released into the environment either through chemical speciation, hydrological flow paths, soil-water interactions, and the composition of the underlying geological materials (Gala-Gorchev, 1998).
SURFACE WATER POLLUTION: FACTORS AND IMPLICATIONS Surface water includes water bodies on the earth 's crust such as well, river, lake, pond, stream, ocean. The water we use for our daily purposes and supplied by the municipalities mostly includes surface water primarily from river catchments. Water for agriculture is taken from rivers; it used to be taken from wells also but now it has shifted to bore wells mostly. Pollution refers to the presence of foreign matter in the resource which degrades the quality of the resource and may cause harm to the consumers. Surface water pollution occurs in many ways.
Addition to these, disposal of dead bodies, discharge of industrial and sewage wastes and agricultural runoff, which are major cause of ecological damage and pose serious health hazards (Meitei et al., 2004a). The pollutant from agricultural lands such as fertilizers, pesticides and fungicides and from anthropogenic activities such as mining, disposal of toxic metals, human and animal faeces, industrial, domestic, municipal wastes are continuously discharged into river, such as Vaigai, are the major casues for deterioration of water quality (Karet al,2008 and Amman et al, 2002). In order to maintain the quality of drinking water, an essential component to humans and other living
Usually water pollution is caused by the waste from sewage, and factories. Water pollution is a serious problem for agriculture and food security, because to grow crops we need water, but when the water is polluted the crops die, or get infection. Here are some solutions to
There is on-going regulatory and research concern for metals in the environment and numerous regulations have been implemented globally to control or curtail natural and anthropogenic industrial metal emissions. Contaminants are the substance that can endanger the environment, humans, animals, plants, soil or water (Hoffmann, 1998). Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes impacts on biophysical environments, biodiversity and other resources (Sahney et al 2010; David and Alan 2008). The term anthropogenic designates an effect or object resulting from human activity. The atmospheric scientist Paul Crutzen introduced the term "anthropocene" in the mid-1970s (Crutzen et al 2000).
Recharge by runoff from irrigation water into groundwater as well as leaching of agrochemicals cause serious groundwater contamination problems. The clearing of natural vegetation and ploughing up of virgin land for new cultivation also affect the groundwater quality. Irrigation is one of the major sources of salinity in the soil through which rainwater flows to the water table. The dissolution of these salts finally
This plant overgrowth is caused mostly from agro-chemicals run-off .Eutrophication as a result of agro-chemical influence stands in stark contrast to land stripping, deforested and sometimes desertification effect that mining waste has on plant life. The act of clearing of land for preparation of mining, the mining activity itself effectively decimates all vegetation and plant life in the area. Mining waste also has the effect of damaging, vegetation in neighbouring locations also. Even though in the former case, plant magnified, and the latter destroyed, both have the effect creating an imbalance in the environment, damaging the eco-systems, sometimes irreversibly most times requiring great efforts to correct and almost always affecting the lives of living things including humans