Summary: Decade's Water Pollution

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1. Introduction
Over decade’s water pollution incidents are the most detrimental effects of biosphere, which may cause greenhouse effect, acid rain and unsuitable contamination of drinking water or water quality (P. K. Goel, 2006). Water pollution is the direct or indirect alteration of chemical, physical and biological factors that affect water quality (P. K. Goel, 2006). It is the contamination of water courses such as rivers, ground water, aquifer, lakes, oceans, water pipes and boreholes. Water pollution has been a major problem all over the world which can cause certain diseases and affect the ecological section (F.W Owa, 2014).
2. Water pollution emergencies in china
What was spilled?
China is one of the countries with high number of
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Rumseur, 2012). The incident led to significant release of oil. It has been estimated that the resealed oil was approximately 206 million gallons of oil which spilled into the United States Coastal waters (Jonathan L. Rumseur, 2012).
Environmental risks
Oil spills can cause impacts over a range of scale and the period of the oil spill. The impact of an oil spill depends on the size of the spill, the rate of the spill, the type of oil spilled and the location of the spill. Oil spills can cause a significant harm to individual and entire populations. Impact of oil spills are divided into acute and chronic effects of the oil spill (Jonathan L. Rumseur, 2012).
Acute impacts depend on the toxicity and concentration of the spill (Jonathan L. Rumseur, 2012). Acute exposure to oil spills can kill various organisms and cause the following debilitating effects: reduce reproduction, altered development, impairer feeding mechanism, decreased defense from disease. Birds, marine mammals, bottom dwelling and inertial species and organism in their developmental stages are vulnerable to oil spills (Jonathan L. Rumseur,
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Rumseur, 2012).
Legal implications
United States government has implemented the oil pollution Act which governs oil spill prevention and response. Environmental Protection Agency covers the inland zone. Jurisdiction over oil spill prevention and preparedness duties is determined by the potential sources (e.g., vessels, facilities, pipelines) of oil spills (Jonathan L. Rumseur, 2012). The response it aims at preventing any further pollution for present and future generation.

4. Mine water pollution in South Africa
What was spilled?
Mine water pollution is the chemical contamination of water which affect the ground water and surface water such as rivers (Dr Suzan Oelofse and Dr Antony Turton, 2008). A major problem that is related to the environment is the discharge of contaminated water from the abandoned mines. Acid mine drainage is the uncontrolled discharge of contaminated water from the mines or particularly generated in the mines (Dr Suzan Oelofse and Dr Antony Turton, 2008). Acid mine drainage is characterized by the following components low PH, manganese, high salinity levels, elevated concentration of Sulphate, iron, raised levels of toxic heavy metals, aluminums and other components which may affect the water quality (Dr Suzan Oelofse and Dr Antony Turton,

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