John B. Watson Theory of behaviorism: The term behaviorism refers to the school of psychology founded by John B. Watson based on the belief that behaviors can be measured, trained, and changed. Behaviorism was established with the publication of Watson 's classic paper, Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It (1913). Behaviorism, also known as behavioral psychology, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. Behaviorists believe that our responses to environmental stimuli shapes our behaviors.
In 1913, the behaviorist movement began with the studies of John Broadus Watson (1878-1958), a pioneering figure in the development of the psychological school of behaviorism. He published an article entitled ' 'Psychology as the behaviorist views it ' ' in which he had the impression that psychology shouldn 't deal with what the people say that they think or feel, in other words, he reduced and dehumanized the human mind and its consciousness. To put it differently, he asserted a claim that the study of the human mind would be concerned only with people 's actions and behavior. Watson 's work relied upon the experiments of Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936), a Russian Nobel laureate psychologist who had worked on animals ' responses to conditioning. For instance, in his best-known experiment, Pavlov rang a bell and then gave a dog some food.
Behaviorist theory or we can call it “behaviorism”. It was started in 19th and the early of the 20th century and the producer of this theory is John Watson a psychologist. John’s perspective or point of view was affected by the research of Russian physiologists, Pavlov and Skinner. We will present the main points of the behaviorist theory which is the idea of the behaviorist theory with examples to clarify it, types of the ways of learning in behaviorist theory and the disadvantages or the critics that has been found about the behaviorist theory. Behaviorist theory is about learning by repetition, the more the repetition the more the person will learn.
They recognize Kant’s emphasis on the gap between our conception of the world (epistemology) and the real world that exists outside of our mind and independent of our conception of it (ontology). And like Kant, they agree that our conception of the empirical world though affected by the empirical world is more largely creatively shaped by our conceptual schemes or background knowledge, pre-formed regulative postulates or assumptions. For the pragmatist, therefore, our cognition is theory-laden (See CP 5.526). We do not have immediate intuitive knowledge of the world that is certain since our knowledge is always mediated (by concepts and descriptions ) or inferential, always involving interpretations and colligations of interpretation (See CP. 2.442).
The main research methods in behaviourism were based on observation, from which a hypothesis can be drawn and tested, with the results recorded. Behaviours can be measured thus allowing us to be able to quantify results. Psychodynamics on the other hand, although aimed to be scientific in its methods, would be perceived as being qualitative. The concepts and research methods that psychodynamics focused on and used were not very measureable. However, Psychodynamics did still build theories such as that of defence mechanisms.
Watson 's classic paper, "Psychology as the Behaviourist Views It." It is best summed up by the following quote from Watson, who is often considered the "father" of behaviourism: "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I 'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select—doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors." Several thinkers influenced behavioural psychology. In addition to those already mentioned, there are a number of prominent theorists and psychologists who left an indelible mark on behavioural psychology. Among these are Edward Thorndike, a pioneering psychologist who described the law of effect, and Clark Hull, who proposed the drive theory of
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The term “Behaviorism” was the science of observable behaviour according to John Broadus Watson (1903). In Behaviorism, Only behaviour that could be observed, recorded and measured was of any real value for the study of humans and animals and its goal is to explain relationships between antecedent conditions (stimuli), behaviour (responses), and consequences (reward, punishment, or neutral effect). This theory was more concerned with the effects of stimuli because Watson derived much of his thinking from classical conditioning of Pavlov’s animal studies and this is also referred to as “learning through stimulus substitution”. It is a reference to the substitution of one stimulus for another. For example, the ringing of a bell eventually produced the same response as food for Pavlov’s dog.
Falsificationism, though, helped me to understand that induction is good for everyday life, but not for science. I learnt that it is possible to falsify someone’s theory or my theory be falsified, but Kuhn’s and Lakatos’ approaches made me understand that it is better not to abandon a theory even if it is falsified. Research programmes influenced me mostly, since the fundamental hypothesis of the hard core and the supplementary assumptions of the protective belt, can be better applied not only to physics, but also natural sciences. For me science has to be explained in an objective way, so the anarchistic theory of science did not influence me, because it talks about individual’s freedom and subjectivity. Finally, the modern approaches of Bayesianism and New Experimentalism did not satisfy me at all and they did not help me in order to define what science is.
Another limitation, as critics have emphasized is that social learning does not explain how motivation or personality changes over time. While most psychology textbooks place Bandura’s theory with those of the behaviorists, Bandura himself has noted that he ‘...never really fit the behavioral orthodoxy.’ Even in his earliest work, Bandura argued that reducing behavior to a stimulus-response cycle was too simplistic. While his work used behavioral terminology such as 'conditioning ' and 'reinforcement, ' Bandura explained, ‘...I conceptualized these phenomena as operating through cognitive
The psychodynamic methodology highlights the significance of childhood experiences. Contending it is an essential period for developing; the personality that one receives is immensely influenced by childhood experiences. Considerations put forth by Freud have impacted treatments used to treat mental issues. Freud (1890-1930) was the first psychologist to see that mental problems could influence physical manifestation of loss of development, as shown in the Anna O case. The behaviourist approach has additionally been joined in this present reality in treating fears and educating.