Alex was conditioned to react in a passive manner when confronted with any action that could be considered ultra-violence. Classical conditioning experiments have been performed on humans with a large degree of success. One of the most notable and most controversial classical conditioning experiments done on humans was Watson’s “Little Albert” experiment. This experiment was conducted to test the fear response in humans. The experiment started off by introducing Albert to several animals, a white rat, monkey, bunny and a dog (Creelan). When Albert started to play with the rat, Watson banged a hammer on a metal pipe scaring Albert causing him to cry. Over time the sight of the rat without the banging of the hammer caused Albert to cry. …show more content…
Understanding that the concept is contained in the story line of the film still allows the vague possibility that these tactics can be used on the average person. Since classical conditioning is a real process its use in A Clockwork Orange helps add to the cult factor of the movie. No one truly wants to believe that conditioning a person’s response to fulfill the agenda of another person or group of people is a plausible concept, but it is. The experiments conducted by Pavlov during the 1890’s gave rise to a terrifying tool used in many literary works and films. Aldous Huxley used this very technique in his cult novel Brave New World, where a postmodern London in 2540 used reproductive technology, sleep learning, psychological manipulation and classical conditioning to profoundly change society (Huxley). Brave New World was written in 1931 which is approximately thirty years after Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiments yet, this futuristic novel includes the highly controversial techniques developed by …show more content…
While this movie may not be for everybody it does contain an interesting and controversial commentary on society. It seems that the primary message argued in A Clockwork Orange is that through abuse Alex has been considered cured, people must not be used as scientific experiments even if the experiment is for the greater good of society. The needs of the many do not outweigh the rights of one and by breaking this moral code by the elected officials drastically changes the way the society favors their government and its practices. Social engineering is not the answer to eliminate a disruptive youth culture and maintaining order within society. Violent impulses, sexual urges, the enjoyment of music, participating in social camaraderie are all essential parts of the human experience and eliminating any part of that experience would eliminate what it means to be a
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysShow More
Behavior therapy was studied by Ivan Pavlov and his famous dog study in which dogs were conditioned to salivate upon hearing a bell. It was later continued to be studied by John Watson who has the famous “Little Albert” study in which an 11-month old infant was conditioned to be scared of fuzzy white things because a rat was paired with a loud noise. The conclusion of the two conditioning experiences was that, behaviors followed by satisfying experiences tend to increase in frequency and behaviors followed by aversive experiences tend to decrease in frequency” (Thoma, 2015). Watson’s assistant Mary Jones, used this principle to clinical applications reasoning that, “if conditioning could be used to induce a phobia, perhaps it could be used to undo a phobia as well” (Thoma, 2015). Thus, behavior therapy was developed and began being used for
Pavlov’s dog experiment is a base for the establishment of classical conditioning theory and its concepts. In classical conditioning, generalization is defined as the process in which a stimulus similar to the original CS produces similar behavior identical
And not the child's mind only. The adult's mind too—all his life long" (Huxley, Chapter 2), shows how conditioning techniques
Huxley creates a society that seems to be a utopia to its citizens but is clearly dystopic to readers who understand the tyrannical government of World State. The purpose of Brave New World is to satirize Huxley’s society and the future if society continues it unethical behavior. Huxley hopes to make readers apprehensive of the consequences of a technologically-based society- a contemptible
05.06 Discussion-Based Assessment The first thing we discussed was classical conditioning. It sort of all started after Pavlov’s experiment with the dogs. John B. Watson, a psychologist, began his testing on emotional conditioning. John’s theory was that people are not born with a fear of objects.
For this paper, I chose to write about the Little Albert experiment The overall importance of this study was to discover if a human could be conditioned to develop a bias, fear, or generalized fear of an animal, object, or person based the stimuli placed around the involved person, animal or object. Watson & Rayner (1920) suggested that “in infancy the original emotional reaction patterns are few, consisting so far as observed of fear, rage and love, then there must be some simple method by means of which the range of stimuli which can call out these emotions and their compounds is greatly increased.” This means that before any conditioning occurs, the subject should have a pure response, but after minor and simple experimentation and conditioning,
The first chapter of Anthony Burgess’s novel A Clockwork Orange begins unlike anything we have ever read. From the first sentence to the last, the reader is faced with vocabulary that is unfamiliar and a narrative style that demands careful attention. This essay will focus primarily on diction and its historical context but also on the novel’s form. First of all, the unfamiliar language in this novel, while it may be straining, is ultimately intriguing.
Introduction Learning enables you as an individual, to gain more knowledge about something which you have never learned about. Learning also has to do with past experiences which are influenced by behavioural changes (Weiten, 2016). There are different types of ways to learn; through, classical conditioning, operant conditioning and observational learning which will be discussed and analysed in the essay. Behaviourism Behaviourism is considered one of the main subjects in psychology and the two main people who founded behaviourism were, Burrhus Frederic Skinner, also known as B.F Skinner and Ivan Pavlov who were famous for the work they did on classical and operant conditioning (Moderato & Presti, 2006). According to Moderato and Presti
Like all good dystopian stories, the world of A Clockwork Orange shocks us because it is not impossible to achieve. The perfect tyrannical societies portrayed in George Orwell’s 1984, or Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, or Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451, or even Suzanne Collins’ The Hunger Games series are all realistic because they beam present-day society into a twisted mirror and show us how close we are to becoming a daunting, hellish civilization. Similarly, A Clockwork Orange reflects English society as Burgess perceived it in the 1960s- fresh off the boat, he was startled by the prevalence of an irreverent youth subculture of coffee bars, teenage gangs, and rising incidents of juvenile delinquency. This, coupled with the fact that pioneers of behaviorism such as B.F. Skinner were gradually growing in importance, caused him to investigate the
He wanted to test the notion that by following the principles of the procedure now known as "classical conditioning", he could use this unconditioned response to condition a child to fear a distinctive stimulus that normally would not be feared by a child (in this case, furry objects). Method Edit The aim of Watson and Rayner was to condition a phobia in an emotionally stable child. For this study they chose a nine-month old infant from a hospital referred to as "Albert" for the experiment. Watson followed the procedures which Pavlov had used in his experiments with dogs. Before the experiment, Albert was given a battery of baseline emotional tests: the infant was exposed, briefly and for the first time, to a white rat, a rabbit, a dog, a monkey, masks (with and without hair), cotton, wool, burning newspapers, and other stimuli.
A Clockwork Orange is set in a dystopian society, controlled by a restrictive, tyrannical government and denotes a substantial disaccord between the citizens and the state. The novel is narrated by fifteen-year-old Alex, who speaks in a fictitious argot known as Nadsat. Alex and his ‘droogs’ (5) – Dim, Pete, and Georgie – venture the streets in ‘ultra-violence’ (5), attacking, robbing, and raping whoever they please. One night, Alex is arrested amidst another criminal act, putting his ‘ultraviolence’ to an end. In prison, Alex is offered to take part in an experimental behaviour modification treatment, known as the Ludovico’s Technique (91) – an aversion therapy believed to eradicate his violent tendencies – in return for a reduced sentence.
For a film that was made in 1971, the presentation of the effects of classical conditioning is quite accurate and allows the viewer to understand both the positive and negative results of using classical conditioning methods. However, the type of classical conditioning used in this film is inaccurate to real world conditioning procedures. The classical conditioning used in this movie is a fictional type of aversion therapy referred to as the “Ludovico technique”. This technique has the subject (Alex) strapped to a chair and injected with drugs while having his eyelids forced open while a number of disturbing images are flashed in front of him, all to the music of Beethoven's Ninth symphony. The technique used in 1971’s, A Clockwork Orange is a brainwashing technique and is completely fictional.
This school of thought suggests that only observable behaviors should be studied, since internal states such as cognitions, emotions and moods are too subjective. There are two major types of conditioning: 1. Classical conditioning is a technique used in behavioral training in which a naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a response. Next, a previously neutral stimulus is paired with the naturally occurring stimulus.